Sunday

What is Apparel Merchandising | Definition and Process of Apparel Merchandising

Merchandising seems like a modern term is our day to day life but it is conventional since the ancient times. There are various types of merchandising like Technology Merchandising, Grocery Merchandising, E commerce Merchandising, Toy Merchandising, Fashion Merchandising, Digital Merchandising, Product Merchandising, Apparel Merchandising etc. But Apparel Merchandising is the most important term in the world of Merchandising. In this article we will know about the Apparel Merchandising and its process.

Apparel Merchandising

Apparel Merchandising

The process of executing an apparel order from receiving to shipment through proper following-up all the in-between processes. Merchandisers should take care of every single stage mentioned below to meet the customers’ requirements. S/he has to deal with quality, quantity and most importantly time. Merchandisers must have sharp eyes on each and every supply chain involved. Identifying and understanding what potential customers want and providing their desired Textile items to them in a certain price and lead-time by making a communication bridge between the customer and the manufacturing company can also be termed as Apparel Merchandising process. So merchandising process involves at least three parties as- 

  • Company/Supplier/Vendor: Who are making the products for buyers, 
  • Customer/Buyer: Who place the order to the vendors or who are targeted by company with the help of merchandiser and 
  • Merchandiser: Who places his position between the above two parties.

Apparel Merchandising Process

Textile & Clothing business is a multi-chain business starting from the customer’s technical meeting with the potential vendors. In that meeting, both customer and vendors appear with all their possible credentials. Customers indubitably have the crystal clear data on the up-to-date market trend and product price issues. Vendors offer what they can produce and what is their product portfolio. At the very beginning, customers or buyers discuss their product demand what they are going to the business. They choose the items by conducting a survey on consumer behavior and fashion trends in their target market. They get early forecasting about the product or item to be ordered to the vendors. 

Apparel Merchandising

After successful technical meeting with the vendor, they both agree on product style, amount, quality parameters, shipment mode, shipment port, and price details etc. Customers issue a purchase order to the vendors and open a Letter of credit (master LC) against this order. Vendors can initiate their jobs after getting the technical package or tech pack or technical specification sheet from the customer along with the master LC. They then execute the order as per the PO and ship it to the customers’ destination accordingly. All the chains from technical meeting to product shipment has been illustrated precisely as below-

Business Meeting

In this meeting, customers discuss what they want, e.g. T-shirt, Polo shirt, Tank-top etc. and different styling parameters what they want on the item. For example, for a t-shirt, whether any chest-pocket or not, how about the necking- neck rib or plain fabric, what about the bottom hem etc. though styling may be changed later on through the sampling stages. Contrariwise, vendors also place their capabilities and may discuss their own product portfolio to convince the customers as a reliable vendor. 

Order Confirmation

If the item and detail styling is within the capabilities of the vendor and customers become happy with their product portfolio, then starts pricing. Both customers and vendors offer their suitable price for the desired item. Customers initiate the price negotiation with a base price which is usually a lower price than the exact or tentative prices. Vendors start with their target price which is, on the other hand, a bit higher price than the usual prices. They go through a logical negotiation stage and finally reach a win-win point and make an agreement to proceed the order. Customers open a master LC against the order and generate the PO mentioning quite a detail information like size range, colors, quantity details, and shipment details etc. 

Sampling

After getting the tech pack and master LC, vendors calculate the necessary consumption of the required fabrics, trims & accessories and place booking to the sub-units like sewing thread supplier, zipper supplier, button supplier, spinning unit, fabric unit, dyeing unit, garment unit etc. These individual chains then open a back to back LC against the master LC and proceed from sample developments. Obviously, they have to take the approval of their developed items from the respective department like customers’ quality control (QC) unit. 

Garment Sampling

Sampling is done to ensure the styling, fittings, color quality and embellishment quality (if any). Though garment sampling processes vary from customer to customer, development sample, proto sample, pre-production sample, production sample are required by all the customers. It is worth mentioning that the approved production sample is used in the inspection before shipment as this sample is prepared using all actual materials as per PO. 

Fabric Sampling

Fabric sampling starts with color approval as per color standards provided by the buyers. Color or shade approval can be either yarn dip or lab dip and simultaneously grey fabric quality has to be approved. Then starts fabric dyeing as per the approved shade for solid color order or yarn dyeing for stripe order. Before dyeing the full lot, first bulk dyeing shade has to be approved to proceed on. If the order contains any printing (placement print or all-over print), print strike-off must be approved as per design story before going for bulk. 

Trims & Accessories Sampling

All the necessary trims & accessories required for the order have to be developed and approved from the customer alongside the garment sampling and fabric sampling steps. Actually, all these 3 issues (garment sampling, fabric sampling, trims & accessories sampling) must run at a time to meet the order lead time.

Testing

Customers usually require some standard testing in every stage of order execution like yarn stage, fabric stage, garment stage etc. from a well-recognized testing lab. Merchandisers must submit the passed test certificates to the customers along with the samples. 

Garment Making

When everything like fabrics, trims & accessories are ready and in-housed then starts the bulk garment production steps including fabric spreading, cutting, sewing and finishing. But before starting the sewing of a new style, there is a technical meeting consisting of the merchandisers, planning manager, production manager, inventory manager and quality manager to set the sewing line layout. Then a trial of short quantity is run for line balancing which is called pilot run. Garment sewing and then finishing has been accomplished through a series of in-line quality check. 

Order Shipment

Customers’ nominated QC team or often the 3rd party inspection team like Bureau Veritas, SGS, Intertek, TUVSUD etc. inspects the produced garments whether it conforms to the PO or not. They use the production sample approved by customers as the reference or standard to cross-match the bulk lot. After getting passed certificate from them, these bulk lots are shipped along with necessary export and logistic documentations. 

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Author of this Article:
Engr. Dilruba Yeasmin
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering (BUTEX)
Regular writer at the Textile learning-based blog site, Texpedia (https://www.texpedi.com/) 
You may catch her through: facebook, pinterest, youtube and twitter.

Friday

What Kinds of Fabric Features enable Clothes become Comfortable to Wear?

As for what fabrics are comfortable to wear, it cannot be generalized. The comfort of clothing fabrics is mainly determined by the following several aspects.

Moisture Permeability

Moisture Permeability

No matter which season is spring, summer, autumn, or winter, it is not a pleasant thing to wear a piece of air-impermeable and moisture-impermeable clothing, because the air-permeable and moisture-permeable fabric cannot be emitted to the outside air due to the sweat emitted by the human body. You feel sweltering, and the sweat left on your skin can cause skin diseases such as eczema, which is very bad for your health. In this regard, natural fabrics such as silk, cotton, linen, and wool are better than polyester, acrylic, and nylon chemical fiber fabrics, and are better than recycled fibers such as tencel, ice silk, acetate, and copper ammonia silk.

How clothes become Comfortable to Wear?

But how manufacturers or clothing brands ensure the moisture permeability of fabric is met to certain performance so the garments made from the fabric is suitable to wear in? the answer is by testing, most of the big brands will have their own textile testing labs, where you can find some precise instruments are there, like for testing moisture or permeability, the lab operators will use the moisturemanagement tester to check the moisture management properties of the fabric.

Moisture Management Tester

Skin-Friendly

Skin Friendly

No matter what kind of fabric, if it is very piercing and unfriendly to the skin, it must be very uncomfortable. In terms of skin-friendliness, silk clothing is definitely the best. Silk mulberry silk is not only soft and smooth, but also rich in amino acids that are good for the human body. Cashmere and alpaca are also very skin-friendly. Both are very soft and have no irritation to the skin. Moreover, alpaca hair does not contain oil and is generally not dyed. It is more beneficial to human health. It can be said that cashmere or alpaca Wool is the first choice for winter tights. Next is cotton and some artificial regenerated fibers, mainly from Modal, Tencel, copper ammonia silk, acetate fabrics, viscose fibers, etc. Although these fabrics are artificial fibers, compared to chemical fibers, their skin-friendly properties are still pretty good. Because hemp is relatively rough, skin-friendly is generally not very good.

Windproof and Warm

Wind Proof and Warm

Windproof and warmth is the most basic requirement for clothing. Especially in the cold winter conditions, a piece of clothing with good thermal insulation will feel particularly comfortable on the body. The warmth of clothing is mainly determined by the amount of stationary air that can be fixed around the fabric. The more stationary air is fixed, the warmer the fabric is. In natural fabrics, because cashmere and alpaca are hollow, and the fibers are light, they can absorb air around them, so they have the best heat retention. Wool is second only to cashmere and alpaca. Among them, Mohair and merino wool have the best performance, while domestic wool is relatively inferior. In addition, fur clothing is also very windproof and warm. Among them, mink fur is the best. Fox fur, rabbit hair, and wool are relatively inferior. Of course, the fur here refers to the fur type. If it is in the past two years, composite furs such as sheep shearing or granular wool have not been warm enough.

Cool Feeling

Cool Feeling Material

Summer clothing is very particular about the coolness of the fabric. Under high temperature conditions, wearing some fabric clothes is like air conditioning. Of the natural fabrics, hemp has the best cooling feeling. Hemp not only has good moisture absorption, but also has very good moisture permeability. Because it dries quickly, the evaporation of water will absorb heat to the human body, making people feel cooler on a hot summer day. Silk is second only to hemp, and silk has very good moisture permeability. In addition, the moisture content of recycled fibers such as viscose fibers is also very suitable for the needs of the human body, so the cooling feeling is also good. Of course, the coolness of clothing also depends on the permeability and design structure of the fabric. The more transparent the fabric, the more sand holes, and the smaller the textile density, the cooler it is. The wind will make the human body feel cooler.

Conclusion

These are several vital factors you need to consider when dealing with business engaged with comfortable features in consideration, and these are also the extra money you are willing to pay for the quality and performance behind the brands.

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Thursday

The 15 best Types of Shorts for Men and Women

Short is a trouser that ends middle of the ankle and knee or above. To have a great informal and stylish look shorts are the best especially in the summer season. Earlier shorts were considered as an improper attire for women but now a day shorts have become exceptionally popular attire for both men and women.

Different types of Shorts

Definition of Shorts

Shorts can be defined as short trousers or short pants that are shorter in length. It is a multi-gender short pant that ranges bottom of the knee to any shorter desired length.

The 15 best Types of Shorts

There are different types of shorts according to style, raw material and end use. But we will discuss about the most popular types of shorts listed below:

1. Bermuda Short
2. Booty Short
3. Boxer Short
4. Boyfriend Short
5. Capri Short
6. Boy Short
7. Chino Short
8. Cargo Short
9. Cut off Short
10. Cycling Short
11. Dolphin Short
12. Jamaican Short
13. Skort
14. Surfing Short
15. Trunk Short


Video by Tim Savage from Pexels

Bermuda Short

Bermuda short is a knee-length semi-formal type of short which is also known as walk or dress short. Though its name is Bermuda it was not invented in Bermuda. It was designed in the 20th century in England for the British Soldiers to survive in the tropical and sub-tropical climates. Its leg opening hangs up to one to three inch above the knee having a hand sewn hem. Now a day it is worn by both men and women.

Bermuda Short

It can be made from both denim and non-denim fabrics having a variety of colors. It can be worn with  T-Shirts, blazers, sports jackets or light weight sweaters.

Booty Short

Booty short is a low rise short having a very short length. It will cover the minimal area of the body parts. Generally it is worn by women only having a great posture. Sometimes it is worn under the short skirts. It can be made from denim, fake leather or synthetic shiny fabrics. Casually it is not recommended but is recommended for the beach area and summer parties.

Booty Short

Boxer Short

Originally boxer shorts were wore by the boxing participants. The current boxer shorts having elastic band at waist are alternative to leather belted trunks typically worn by the boxers. Some boxer shorts have a fly hole to facilitate your urination process. If you think about the comfort then boxer short is the best choice. It can be worn both as an underwear and as a short. Generally it is worn by men but sometimes ladies can also wear them as a casual wear. You can also try it during sleeping at night. Due its versatile uses and comfort it has become so popular.

Boxer Short

Boyfriend Short

Boyfriend short is a loose fit short having a short length and also looks like the jeans worn by men. It is very comfortable to wear regardless of its raw materials. Generally it is made by denim fabrics having shank button at waist, rivets, zipper, pockets and hand sewn hem. It is suitable for casual and semi casual events.

Boyfriend Short

Capri Short

Capri short is also known as Three Quarter as it covers the length down to 3 to 5 inch above the ankle. Now a day it has become very popular as it can be worn in any occasion. It is very comfortable and attractive in design. It also gives advantages during the rainy season as the leg opening area can’t be caught by the rain. It can be paired up with tops, T-Shirts, high hill or flat shoes, sandals etc. Different types of capris like printed Capri, Solid colored Capri, denim Capri, patterned Capri etc. are available.

Capri Short

Boy Short

Boy shorts are extremely fashionable for young girls having a tight fitting and short length. Like the booty shorts it has low rise in design. But it is longer than the booty shorts. These are recommended for pool side parties and beaches.

Boy Short

Chino Short

Chino short is the best designed short among all the shorts across the world preferred by the most of the people. Sometimes it is called the knee-length shorts or walking shorts made of made of a cotton twill fabrics with a solid color. It has long side pockets, back pocket, zipper and button as a closing fastener. It is tight fitting, fashionable and preferable for casual or semi-casual occasions.  

Chino Short

Cargo Short

Cargo Shorts are the most popular among all the shorts due to its casual view. These bear more than three cargo baggy pockets with flaps. These are like chino shorts but the main difference is the pockets. As cargos have many pockets but chinos don’t have so many pockets. These are combat shorts suitable for camping and hiking activities. As you can manage different tools like knife, lighter, ropes, compass etc. in the pockets. Khaki, navy, brown and olive colors are the recommended colors for cargo shorts.       
  
Cargo Short

Cut off Short

Cut of shorts are the shorts that are made in home by cutting the length of trousers or jeans when they have been used. Depending on the wearers taste the length starts just below the crotch to any length above the knee. These have a rough edge at the leg opening area as they are simply cut off from the rest of the pants and kept unhemmed. Sometimes laces can be attached at the cut portions to give them a great look. These are mostly loved by the females and are recommended only for informal occasions.

Cut off Short

Cycling Short

Cycling shorts are long and form fitting shorts specifically designed for the cyclists to reduce chafing during cycling. These are made of fabrics from synthetic fibres like nylon, polyester etc. blended with spandex. Spandex facilitates the maximum stretch ability which creates comfort to the wearer. These are recommended both for casual bi-cycle riding and for long tours.

Cycling Short

Dolphin Short

Dolphin short is a unisex short designed for athletics. It is very shot in length originally made of nylon having waist band, contrast piping, side slits and round corners. It was very popular among the 9080s teenage girls. But now a day it is mostly used as an active wear by men, women and teenagers.

Dolphin Short

Jamaican Short

Jamaican short is a type of short which covers the length between crotch portion and knee. Its length is not so long and not so short. This is comfortable as well as fashionable. As this short have a perfect length this can be worn in any occasion by both men and women.

Jamaican Short

Skort

Skort is a type of short made by the combination of short and skirt. In other word, it is a skirt with a short stitching into it. It gives comfort to the wearer as there is no risk to fall in an embarrassing moment if you wear it. So who hesitates about wearing skirts can try this out. It is also recommended as a sports wear due to its security. This can be worn with T-Shirt or Tops. As this gives you a formal look you can try this out for any occasion.

Skort

Surfing Short

Surfing short is also known as board short best choice for surfing boards. It is a loose fitting short that reaches the knees. It is an alternative to the baggies. It bears a drawstring set in waist that secures the clothing item. It is slightly longer than swim shorts having no lining. Originally it was made of cotton but now a day nylon and polyester shorts are mostly due to the performance. Floral printed design and solid neon color shorts will be the best choices for surfing shorts.

Surfing Short

Trunk Short

Trunk short is a swimwear used by men during sunbath or swimming. It has both shell and inner lining. Shell can be made from both polyester and nylon but lining is always made of polyester.  Lining gives comfort when swimming. It has also side pockets. It can also bear a functional and non-functional drawstring. It comes in a variety of colors and designs that you can easily choose to wear.

Trunk Short

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References:
1. TRIPR

Monday

Fibre vs Yarn vs Fabric: Find the differences


Fibre is the unit part which is used to produce yarn and yarn is used to produce fabric. Fabric is used to make clothing which is the second basic need of human being. In this article we will try to figure out the differences between fibre, yarn and fabric.

Fibre vs Yarn vs Fabric

Textile Fibre

A fibre is a long fine continuous thread or filament that can be spun into yarn such as cotton, jute, polyester, nylon etc. Its length is thousand times longer than its width. To be a textile fibre it should have some definite properties like length, fineness, softness, crimp, flexibility, elongation, strength etc. So all the fibres cannot be defined as textile fibres. Textile fibres can be divided into two major categories. One is natural and another is man-made or artificial.

Textile fibres can be both staple and filament. Staple fibres have a definite length and are shorter. But filament fibres are longer and don’t have any definite length. All the natural fibres are staple except silk. Synthetic fibres can be staple or filament.

Textile Fibre

Natural Fibre

The fibres which are directly or indirectly derived from nature or natural resources are termed as natural fibre. Natural fibres are sub-classified into three major categories according to their origins. They are: Vegetable, animal and mineral fibres. Cotton, Jute, Sisal etc. are vegetable fibres, Wool, Silk etc. are animal fibres and Asbestos is a mineral fibre.

Man-made Fibre

The fibres which are produced artificially are called man-made or synthetic fibres. According to the end use their chemical composition, structure, and properties are greatly modified during the production process. According to the raw materials used to make these fibres are classified into three major categories and they are Regenerated, Synthetic and In-organic fibres. Viscose, Tencell etc. are regenerated cellulosic fibres. Polyester, nylon, acrylic etc. are synthetic and Metallic fibres are Inorganic fibres.

Textile Yarn

A Textile yarn can be defined as a thread made of natural or man-made fibers which is used for knitting and weaving. Yarns can be made with natural fibers like cotton, linen from plants or wool from sheep and silk from silkworms. It can also be made with man-made fibers like nylon, acrylic, polyester etc. Yarn is produced by the spinning process by hand or by machine method.

There are different types of yarn like staple yarn, filament yarn, bulk yarn, stretch yarn, novelty yarn etc. Staple yarn is made from staple fibres and is the most common used yarn. It can be made from natural fibres as well as from synthetic fibres. Filament yarn is made from one or more than one continuous strands by twisting or without twisting for single filament.  Most of the filament yarns are made from synthetic fibres except silk filament yarn.
Bulk yarn is made from bulk continuous filament fibres without or with a little twist. This type of yarn is used to make overlock stitches. Stretch yarn is made from continuous filament fibre having elastic properties. This type of yarn is used in the seams like arm opening, leg opening etc. areas. Novelty yarns like metallic yarn, fancy yarn etc. are used for decorative purposes.

Colorful Textile Yarn

Fabric

Fabric is made from weaving or knitting process by using a set number of yarns. There are mainly three types of fabrics and they are woven, knitted and non-woven fabric. Woven fabric is made by weaving process with the help of a loom. Knitted fabric is made by knitting process with the help of a knitting machine or by hand method like crochet. Non-woven fabrics are made by felting or bonding fibres together.

Close view of Fabric

Woven fabrics are manufactured in a loom. There are two basic types of loom. One is manual or hand loom and another is power loom. Vertical loom, pit loom, frame loom etc. are manual loom and air jet loom, water jet loom, rapier loom etc. are power loom.

Two sets of yarns are used in loom to make to make woven fabrics. One set of yarn is called warp yarn which is used length wise. And another set of yarn is called weft yarn which is used width wise. There are different types of woven fabric structures like plain weave, twill weave, satin weave, basket weave etc. Plain weave is used to make fabrics that are normally used to make shirts. Twill weave is used to make fabrics that are normally used to make jeans.

Basically one set of yarn is used to make knitted fabrics by interloping. Due to its fabric structure knitted fabrics have stretch properties. Length wise yarns are called wales and widthwise yarns are called course. Normally there are two types of knitted fabrics like weft knit and warp knit. Single jersey, Lacoste, Rib Knit, Interlock Knit, Pointelle, Fleece, Knitted Velour etc. are weft knit. Tricot, Raschel etc. are warp knit.

Non-woven fabrics are lighter in weight and weaker compared to woven or knitted fabrics. Cotton, rayon, polyester etc. fibres are used to make non-woven fabrics. These are used to make surgical and industrial masks, bandages, wipes and towels. Sometimes non-woven fabrics are also used to make packing materials, roadbed stabilization sheeting or road-building materials geo-textiles and roofing products.

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Friday

The 10 Best Types of Leggings with Images

At first in the thirteenth century in Europe, cowboys started to use hose made of deer skins as protective wear to protect their legs from rubbing when they ride on horses. At the very beginning of nineteenth century the concept of leggings or tights came and later in 1960s it became very popular.

Definition

Leggings or tights are the skin tight bottoms having elastic waistband. These re known for their softness, elasticated waistband, comfortable and lightweight. These are very popular for working out in the gym or taking a class. These are also used as trousers and now a day these are used as casual wear. Women or girls wear them with tops, denim jackets, skirts and so on. Leggings are very easy to carry.

The 10 Best Types of Leggings with Images

Raw materials used for Leggings

Now a day leggings have become a part of fashion. These can be used as bottoms, active wear as well as casual wear. As the versatility of leggings, the fabric from which it is made is really very important. So, before buying it you should know about the fabric raw materials.

It can be made of 100% cotton fabric. Cotton is very soft, breathable and comfortable to wear. But the main drawback of 100% cotton is it’s not stretchable. For casual wear cotton leggings are the best. But when cotton is blended with spandex, it gets elastic properties which makes it suitable for active wear.

Polyester is another popular raw material for leggings. Leggings made of polyester are light weight, breathable, non-absorbent, wrinkle-resistant and durable which making it a very popular choice for active wear. Spandex can also be blended with polyester to make it more comfortable.

When leather is used as a raw material for leggings it brings an aristocracy to the product. Normally man-made or fake leather is used to make the leggings. These are shiny, elegant, and classical looking. These can be worn with sweater, jackets or outerwear.

Leggings made of wool are perfect for cold weather as they keep your body warm. Nylon is also a popular raw material for leggings. Nylon-spandex blend is also used. These are durable, mildew resistant, light weight and wrinkle free.

Different types of Leggings

There are various types of leggings according to raw materials, length and style. The best type of leggings are listed below:

1. Footed Legging
2. Full Length Legging
3. Mid Length Legging
4. Knee Length Legging
5. Jegging
6. Leather Legging
7. Printed Legging
8. Ripped Legging
9. Shiny Legging
10. Stirrup Legging

Footed Legging

Footed leggings has a look like pantyhose but the fabric from which it is made is coarser. As it covers the feet, needed to wear with shoes and it is very useful in the winter season. These can be worn with shorts and skirts.

Footed Leggings

Full Length Legging

Full length leggings cover the length down to ankle. These are also called ankle-length leggings. These can be used in all the seasons but preferable for winter season. These can be the alternative to jeans. These can be paired with shirts, sweaters, tanks, jackets, tunics and blazers.

Full Length Legging

Mid Length Legging

Mid length leggings cover the three fourth length of feet. These sit down to knees or mid-calf. These are great for working out and suitable for warm weather. These are worn with kurtis, tank tops and skirts.

Mid Length Legging

Knee Length Legging

Knee length leggings cover the length just down to knees. These are preferable for dance, yoga, working out or gymnastics.

Knee Length Legging

Jegging

Jeggings are made with the combination of jeans and leggings. Different types of jeggings are available according to material, length and color. These also provide posterior support than other leggings. Jeggings are preferable to worn with tops, T-shirts, tunics and jackets.

Jegging

Leather Legging

Leather leggings are normally made with fake leather are suitable for casual wear. Leggings made of faux leather are preferable for cold weather. These look shiny, elegant and fashionable. These are a total compliment tendril and keep your body ultra-comfortable. These can be worn with Jackets, Shirts, tops and sweaters.

Leather Legging

Printed Legging

Printed leggings are made of knit printed fabrics that look colorful. These are versatile in design and color. These can be of Floral, Tribal, Leopard, Tiger, African and Galaxy printed. These can be worn in every season with solid colored tops.

Printed Legging

Ripped Legging

Ripped leggings have cut in them and are very fashionable and trendy. These are preferable with casual wear and party wear. The dark colors would be the best color choice for ripped leggings.

Ripped Legging

Shiny Legging

Shiny leggings are made of fabrics blended with polyester, nylon and elastane having metallic effect. Black, silver, gold and maroon colors are preferable. When you want to go to disco, party or club then shiny leggings are perfect choice.

Shiny Legging

Stirrup Legging

At the very beginning stirrup leggings were designed for riding horses. The leg opening is designed having a strap covers the lower part of feet so that it doesn’t come above the boots during horse riding. Later on it became a part of the fashion world. Now a day these are popular for sportswear and active wear.

Stirrup Legging

References:

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