Sunday, March 24, 2019

Combing: Definition, Objects and Necessity

Definition of Combing

The combing process is carried out in order to improve the quality of the sliver coming out of the card. The process eliminates short fibres, it achieves better parallelization of fibres, it straightens curls, and it removes neps and residue impurities. The combing process is essentially aimed at obtaining excellent quality yarns. Depending on what is being produced, waste from combing varies from 12% to 25%, and this can be employed to obtain yarns with a medium-coarse count using the open-end process.

Combing machine

So we can say that, the process of straightening parallelizing and the removal of short fibres and impurities by using a comb assisted by brushes and rollers is called combing.

Objects of combing

1. To remove the fibre shorter than a pre determined length so as to enable the spinner to produce finer yarn.

2. To remove remaining impurities in pre-comber lap, this helps in producing cleaner yarn.

3. To remove neps in the carded sliver.

4. To make the fibre more parallel and straight, so that the yarn becomes more even and lusture.

5. Finally produce a uniform sliver of required weight per unit length and collect into a can in coil form.

Necessity of combing

1. For finer count, high draft is required but draft irregularity for presence of short fibre. After combing short fibre free product (sliver/roving) is ready for higher draft.

2. Longer fibres are finer than short fibres. After combing higher count is possible to keep minimum no of fibre in yarn dia.

Ring spinning system at least 60-65 no of fibre.
Rotor spinning system more than 80 no of fibre.
Length ↑→ Yarn dia ↓
Length ↑→ Yarn dia ↑

3. Long fibre yarn has less hairiness but more luster.

4. Combing is necessary for better yarn appearance and regularity.

5. Less twist for finer yarn but more twist required in presence of short fibre         to remove this.

Friday, February 22, 2019

Textile protein fiber

Two basic types of protein fibers are used in Textile Industry mostly, they are wool and silk. Because of availability and suitable to produce as bulk these two natural protein fibers are popular among the producers across the globe. Like silk and Wool there are some others protein fiber and also being used with cotton and other natural fiber as blend. The other fibers are Mohair, Cashmere, Llama, Alpaca and Vicuna.

Wool Fiber

The ancient protein fiber is wool fiber which is reportedly spun into yarn and then fabric. It can be recycled and reused which is an unique feature of this fiber. The recycled wool fiber can blend with other textile fiber and can be used for clothing, upholstery or other product which has natural resistance power to fire and temperature. Wool is most preferable and special fiber among all the protein fiber because the surface of this fiber has a series of overlapping scales of proteins that pointing towards the tip. Due to this properties on the animals the foreign materials to work its way of out of the fleece. It has also water repellency property as its own. This fiber can absorb maximum amount of moisture that is a special property to be felt as warm when it is worn.

Protein fibre
Sheeps; Image Source: Pixabay

Silk Fiber 

It is another oldest fiber in this world which can be dyed with brilliant colors. Historically it has been in use since 5500 years in the world. This is only the natural filament fiber other than any synthetic fiber. Silk is very finer and lustrous fiber which gives extra glamorous look to the cloths. It's harvesting policy is typically the harvesting of a insects called bombyx mori. This insects or caterpillar eat mulberry leaves and grows gradually, this kind of silk is used mostly for commercial purposes which is white and 10-14 microns diameter and round in cross-section. In fact there are some steps to be grown the silk and finally it comes from cocoons of the mulberry silkworm. A Silkworm can contain roughly 1000 yards yarn that can be reeled off, spun and woven into fabric. Cultivation of silk is called sericulture which is a profitable business. There are some difference in wool and silk fiber. Wool fiber contains the protein called Keratin which grows from the outer skin layer of mammals whereas silk has the protein called fibroin that is produced by the silk glands.

Protein fibre silk
Silk cocoon; Image source: Pixabay

Mohair Fiber

This protein fiber is obtained from the hair of the Angora goat and the fabric is produced alike silk-fabric. It is one of the most significant hair fiber. Historically, the word mohair is derived from the Arabic Mukhayyar which means the goats hair fabric which became mockaire in medieval times. It is also another ancient fiber that was produced in Turkey at the beginning. It is composed of the protein called Keratin. Its structure is similar to the wool fiber though the outer layer has near about 50% of the number of scales found in fine wools. It is a lustrous fiber with good staple length and also resilient and durable. It's moisture absorbency is almost same as wool fiber.

Protein fibre mohair
Angora goat; Image source: Pixabay

Cashmere Fiber

Cashmere fiber that is commonly known as Cashmere wool or only cashmere that is obtained from the Cashmere goat. The name was derived from the Kashmir which is the northernmost geographical region in India and Pakistan. It is a kind of animal hair fiber. In some region of Asia it is also known as pashm or pashmina which is usually produced in Kashmir, India. The fiber which is obtained from Cashmere goat has a protective outer coat of coarse fiber that is about 4 - 20 centimeter in length. Some the downy undercoat fiber is also soft and having length ranges from 2.5 to 9 cm. It contains impurities as grease and vegetable matters. Coarse fibers are obtained by different mechanical de-hairing processes which are mostly unknown. High quality cashmere fabric or shawls contain less than 5% of the coarser yarn. It has the specialty to produce fabric that is warm and comfortable to wear.
Protein fibre
Cashmere goat

Llama, Alpaca and Vicuna Fibers

These are also hair fibers come from same kind of animals found in South America. Fibers are fine, lustrous with a color in white or brown. Generally, the fibers are very strong in this group and longer than any other hair fiber. These are expensive fibers in the world and used in luxury items of textiles and garments.

Protein fibre
Alpaca; Image source: Pixabay

Author of this blog post
Firoz Kabir
Production Merchandiser at KappAhl
Founder of the blog site: Textile Aid

Thursday, February 7, 2019

Men’s vs Women’s underwear: Find the differences


 Difference between men's and women's undewear
We always care about the quality, style and brand value of our outer garments but what about our undergarments? It’s wise to have quality undergarments than outer garments.

Underwear or undergarment or undies are those products which are worn next to skin under the other clothing. They have both functional and aesthetic properties. They increase confidence among men and women. During sports time they play a very important role.

Underwear comes in a variety of color and style. There are different types of men’s and women’s underwear. Brief, boxer, boxer brief etc. are known as men’s underwear and hipster, tanga, thong etc. are known as women’s underwear.

Men’s underwear

The undergarments which are worn by men are known as men’s undergarments. Brief and boxer are the most commonly used undergarments by men. Most of the men choose one style for undergarments and settle on it for lifetime whatever the activity is. Some men find comfort and security in briefs and some are interested in freedom with boxers.

Briefs are ideal for all tight fittings but are old fashioned. Boxers are loose, airy and also ideal for sleeping. But boxers have tendency to bunch up underneath clothing and also not supportive for physical activities.

Quality, comfort and longevity of a men’s undergarment depends on the raw materials used to make it. Various kinds of raw materials like cotton, cotton blends, linen, polyester, viscose, lycra etc. are used to make men’s undergarment.

Men's brief

Cotton is the most popular raw material to make undergarments. Cotton is absorbent, breathable and available too. Most of the men look for cotton undergarments.

Women’s underwear

The underwear worn by the women next to skin beneath outer garments are called women’s underwear. There may be various types of women’s underwear but specifically we will discuss about panties. Panties are the legless undergarments worn by women and girls.

There are various types of panties available according to color and design. Thong, tanga, hipster, bikini, g-string, v-string, boy-short etc. are some common types of women’s panties. A good quality panty seems like second skin and the wearer would feel that she is not wearing anything.


The main raw material of panty is also cotton due softness and breathability. Besides silk, polyester, nylon, viscose, lycra etc. are used as raw materials for making panties. Every woman or girl prefer how light-weight they are with the thin waist and leg elastic.

Importance of wearing underwear

In our day to day life, underwear plays a very important role. It increases the beauty and fitness. It has health benefits too. Now we will discuss about the importance of wearing underwear as below:

1. It gives sexy feel.
2. It keeps outerwear fresh and clean.
3. It provides comfort.
4. It protects us from being exposed.
5. It protects us from crotch rot.
6. It insulates our private parts from the elements.
7. It protects men’s penis from denim chafing it.
8. It provides protection from extra movement of penis during walking, jogging or running.
9. It is very important to wear during women’s periods to support sanitary napkins.
10. It gives confidence.
11. It protects genitals from getting stuck in pant zipper.
12. It helps to avoid skin infections and irritations.

Difference between men’s and women’s underwear

Men’s and women’s underwear have a lot of differences on the basis of color, style and structure. Now we will dig out the differences as follow:

Difference between men and women underwear


Both men’s and women’s undies are important for their functions though it seems that women’s undies are more comfortable due to light weight, softness and breathability.


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Thursday, January 31, 2019

What is Textile Finishing | Different types of Textile Finishing

Definition of Textile Finishing

In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted fabrics into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance or "hand feel" of the finished textile product or clothing.

In another way we can define, “Textile finishing is the term for chemical and mechanical processes used on textiles after they have been made”.
What is textile finishing
Stentering Machine for finishing

Methods of Textile Finishing

But how is textile finishing done? Let's look at a few common textile finishing methods.

Chemical Finishing Methods

Chemical finishing methods include bleaching and mercerizing. Bleaching is a process of whitening textiles through a chemical process that involves oxidation. Textiles may be bleached to remove unappealing natural color or variations in surface color, or as a step in preparation for dyeing. Mercerizing adds strength and luster to cotton textiles by submitting them to an alkali solution. This process also allows them to better soak up dyes.

Mechanical Finishing Methods

Mechanical textile finishing methods include napping and shearing processes that create a soft surface much like velvet. They also make textiles warmer for the wearer. Think of your favorite fleece jacket or blanket. During this kind of treatment, the textile is subjected to rollers covered with many very short wires that raise the fibers from the surface.

Different types of Textile Finishing

There are many different types of textile finishing. We can't cover them all, but let's explore important categories and some of the most common processes.

Washing and Drying

Washing cleans the fabric and removes dirt that might remain following the manufacturing process. It can also involve other finishing processes like bleaching which removes color and whitens fabric and scouring which uses high temperature and detergents to remove dirt, grease, and wax from manufacturing. During these phases of textile finishing the fabric might also undergo special processes like mercerizing which is done to cotton. In mercerizing the cotton fabric is submerged in a sodium hydroxide solution for short periods and then rinsed. This process makes cotton fabric stronger, gives it a lustrous or shiny surface and improves its ability to take dyes and hold more vivid colors.


Fabrics also need to be stabilized. These processes are done after washing.They tend to reduce shrinkage, settle condition and readjust surfaces that might have become stretched during manufacturing. Fabric stabilizing includes processes like calendering, which compacts fabric fibers by pressing them between two large heated rollers. Several types of calendering using different rollers produce specific kinds of finishes.

Some methods might be used on specific kinds of textiles. Fulling is a process that uses heat, moisture and friction on wool fabrics to makes them smoother and more compact. It's sort of like controlled shrinkage. Another process done specifically to wool is crabbing in which wool fabric is wound on rollers at high tension and subjected to hot or boiling baths. The process eliminates distortion and helps set the yarn fibers so they hold their shape.

Other Finishes

Another element of textile finishing involves applying chemical substances to fabrics in order to achieve certain results. These might make fabrics resistant to static or help them stay wrinkle-free. Substances can also be applied to make fabrics water repellent, flame retardant or anti-bacterial. Today there are an endless variety of very specialized finishing processes to achieve desired functional results.

Some Textile Finishing Machine

- Film coating finishing machine
- Blade type finishing machine
- HMI Stenter textile machine.
- Good Insulation textile finishing machine .


Author of this Post
MR Noyon
Jhenaidah Textile Engineering College

Sunday, January 13, 2019

What is medical textile | Application area of medical textile

Definition of Medical Textile

Medical textile can be defined as fibre based products or structures used for first aid or the clinical treatment of a wound or medical condition.

It is a highly specialized and bio compatible technical textile, used for medical and hygiene application called ‘MEDTECH’. The characteristics required of MEDITECH vary depending on the task for which they are to be used. Some applications demand a protective function, others a high absorptive capacity and some others impermeability. Special antimicrobial finishes are given to make to medical textiles and it is an important characteristic of these textiles.

Medical textile

It is a combination of textile technology and medical science. In the field of medical application, technical textiles are not just used in contact with skin, but also fulfill important functions within the body (intra-corporal applications like implants). Technical textiles offer medical and hygiene industry with unparalleled protection, comfort and cost saving. It has become possible only due to development of new yarns and manufacturing technologies of yarn and fabric.

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Medical textiles should be non-toxic and non-allergenic and able to sterilize without imparting any change in the physical and chemical characteristics.

Application area of medical textiles

1) Healthcare/hygiene products – Include bedding, clothing, surgical clothes, products for feminine hygiene like stationary napkins, baby and adult diapers, filters, bandages, support and protective material, surgical sutures, dental floss etc.

2) Non-implantable materials – For wound care that includes absorbent pad (wound contact layer, base material viscose, plastic film) and bandages (simple inelastic/elastic, orthopedic, plasters, gauzes, lint, padding).

3) Textiles in extracorporeal devices – Like artificial kidney, liver and lungs.

4) Implantable materials – Like sutures (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), soft tissue implants, artificial tendon (meshes), artificial ligament, artificial cartilage, orthopedic implants artificial joint, cardiovascular implants vascular grafts, heart valves.