Martindale Abrasion Tester Test Results Review

The system of methodological standards for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method is systematically introduced, and the relationship between European standards, German standards, and the American Society for Materials is pointed out.

Martindale Abrasion Tester Test Results Review

It points out that the relationship between European standards, German standards, American Materials Council standards, Chinese standards, and international standards ISO is equivalent to or modified—The Martindale method for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics.

There are three methods for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method:

  • The method of measuring the damage to specimens
  • The process of measuring the loss of mass
  • The way of changing the quality of appearance

Among the three methods, the commonly used method is the measurement of specimen breakage.

The method has minor errors, the test result is intuitive and straightforward, and the abrasion resistance of different fabrics is easy to compare, so it is commonly used in clothing products and decorative fabrics.

Determining the mass loss and appearance quality change methods is more complicated. But It can reflect the abrasion resistance of specimens at different friction stages.

The abrasion resistance condition of the specimen at different rubbing stages has strong practicality in the analysis of fabric usage by manufacturing enterprises or scientific research institutions.

This Paper is Based on National Standard

GB/T21196.2~4-2007, the main contents of the three methods for determining fabric abrasion resistance by the Martindale method are outlined, hoping to help the textile.

Hopefully, it will help textile quality inspection personnel correctly understand and apply the Martindale method for testing fabric abrasion resistance.

Determine the specimen's mass per unit area, the unit area of the specimen ≥ 500g/m2, without foam liner, and the specimen < 500g/m2, specimen fixture with foam liner.

Total Effective Mass of Friction Load Selection

The total effective mass of the friction load includes the gripper, stainless steel disc, and the mass of the specimen weight. According to the technical data provided by the APLAS M235 Martindale Abrasion Tester Resistance and puckering tester, the gripper mass: (200±1)g; the stainless steel disc mass: (260±1)g; the specimen weight is mass: (395±2)g, and (594±2)g. 

According to the use of specimen, fabric characteristics to choose the corresponding friction load total effective mass has three options: 

1) (795±7)g: Applicable to work clothing, furniture decoration cloth, bed linen products and industrial fabrics.

2) (595±7)g: For taking and home textiles (furniture decoration cloth, bed linen and linen products, non-taking coated fabrics

3) (198±2)g: Applicable to taking coated fabrics.

Abrasive Replacement Cycle

Wool standard fabric: 50K times and standard water sandpaper: 60K times.

Inspection interval

The number of times the specimen rubs when it reaches breakage is predicted, and the appropriate inspection interval is designed based on this, as the specimen wear resistance test process. An inspection interval is a certain number of times of friction.  


Measurement Results Representation

Determine the total friction times when each specimen is broken, and take the accumulated friction times before the specimen is broken as the number of wear resistance.

The Fabric Wear Resistance Evaluation Method

Specimen breakage conditions are: woven fabric with at least two independent yarns completely broken; knitted fabric in a yarn breakage, resulting in the appearance of the broken hole; pile or cut pile fabric surface pile is worn to the bottom or pile cluster off; non-woven fabrics due to friction caused by the hole's diameter ≥ 0.5mm.

Coated fabric coating part is damaged to reveal the base cloth or has a piece of coating off. Fabric wear resistance is generally analyzed and evaluated from three aspects: Measurement of specimen damage, measurement of quality loss, and evaluation of appearance changes.

Determination of Specimen Breakage

Under a specific load, the specimen is rubbed against the abrasive in the jig with a Lissajous curve plane movement to the total number of friction when the specimen is broken to determine the wear resistance of the fabric.

Determination of Mass Loss

Under a specific load, the specimen in the fixture is rubbed against the abrasive with a trajectory of Lissajous curve plane movement to the specimen at a specific number of times of friction to determine the wear resistance by the difference in quality before and after friction.

Evaluation of Appearance Change

Under a specific load, the specimen in the jig is rubbed against the abrasive with a Lissajous curved plane motion.

The fabric's abrasion resistance is determined by the change in the specimen's appearance before and after rubbing.

For Martindale abrasion tester & pilling testing, you can choose the ChiuVention Smartindale martindale abrasion & Pilling tester.

Smartindale replaced the traditional analog drive with a digital drive. It is an exclusive innovation in the industry. The combination of dual servo motors, microcontroller, embedded, mathematical model, point-to-point drive, etc., Single point directly generated LISSAJOUS, with higher precision and reliability of the equipment.


The dual action of the servo driver and position sensor allows the instrument to achieve accurate testing continuously.

Smart instrument

It can be connected through Wi-Fi with SmarTexLab App installed in smartphones, set parameters, monitor the test status, receive equipment warning reminders, replenishment reminders, etc., and share test results with one click.

One-click Testing Modes Shifting

Compared to conventional Martindale, with the Smartindale, you don’t need to remove the top plate and change the pins; just click one key of the screen to switch the testing modes from abrasion to pilling (e.g., straight line mode, prominent Lissajous figure, small Lissajous figure).

Ergonomic Design

The moving guide plate can be operated by one hand and automatically closes, with an anti-collision function, which is more friendly to testers.

Reliable Test

The excellent manufacturing accuracy of machining and assembly makes the abrading table and specimen holder highly parallel to each other during running and the specimen holder has a small runout to the surface of the abrading table (less than 0.05mm), which is more conducive to obtaining reliable test results. 

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Sustainability in Textiles: 7 Best Eco-friendly Practices in the Fashion Industry

Today's fashion industry plays a vital role in the global economy as it employs many people, holds the growing fashion trends, and assists in taking it to a different stage. An attractive product is not made just like that. It requires much sacrifice, hard work, proper planning, raw material sourcing, infrastructure and human resources. However, it is also associated with several problems, like air and water pollution, labour abuse, and animal cruelty.

7 Best Eco-friendly Practices in the Fashion Industry

In recent years, there has been a growing campaign towards sustainable and ethical fashion, which aims to encourage gentle and socially responsible practices in the industry. This includes using sustainable raw materials, reducing pollution and promoting fair labour practices. The shift towards sustainable and ethical fashion is accelerating, with many customers demanding greater transparency and accountability from fashion brands.

The Environmental Impact of the Fashion Industry

The fashion industry is known for being one of the most polluting industries in the world, with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, and waste generation. We can present the whole issue of pollution through the following five segments.  

Fast Fashion

Fast fashion is a business model that produces inexpensive clothing quickly in response to the latest trends and demand. This model encourages consumers to buy more clothes and dispatch them quickly, resulting in much more waste.

Synthetic materials

Many clothing items are made from synthetic fibres like polyester, acrylic, and nylon, derived from non-renewable resources like petroleum. The production of these materials requires a lot of energy and emits large amounts of greenhouse gases.

Water Usage

The fashion industry is a significant consumer of water, with some estimates suggesting that it takes 2,700 litres of water to produce a single cotton T-shirt. Without water, washing, dyeing and finishing are impossible in the textile industries. The water used in textile production is often polluted with chemicals, dyes, and other harmful substances. Sometimes the water is not adequately treated and is discharged into the river directly.

Chemicals and Dyes

The production of different types of textiles like yarn, fabric, and clothing involves using chemicals and dyes, which can be toxic and pollute water and the environment. The dyes are used to dye the textile, and chemicals are used to fix and finish it.


The global nature of the fashion industry means that clothes are often transported long distances, resulting in significant carbon emissions. The chain includes manufacturers, buyers and distributors. And to maintain the chain, different types of transportation systems are used. In this way, transportation causes the pollution of the environment.

What is Eco-Friendly Practices?

Eco-friendly practices in the fashion industry refer to sustainable and environmentally conscious methods of designing, producing, and selling clothing, footwear, and accessories. These practices aim to reduce the environment pollution by the fashion industry and promote sustainable and ethical fashion.

7 Best Eco-Friendly Practices in The Fashion Industry

Many efforts are underway to promote sustainability in the industry and reduce its environmental impact. Now we will discuss how to introduce Eco-friendly practices in the fashion industry.

1. Sustainable Materials in Fashion

Sustainable materials in fashion are materials that are produced in an environmentally responsible way and have a lower environmental impact than traditional materials. These materials are often made from natural and renewable resources or recycled materials and are designed to be more durable and long-lasting than conventional materials.

Here are some examples of sustainable materials in fashion:

Organic Cotton

Organic cotton is grown without harmful pesticides and fertilizers, making it a more environmentally friendly option than conventional cotton, which uses much more pesticides and fertilizers. However, it has some drawbacks, like less production, more life cycle, and cost; consciousness is growing among consumers about the use of organic cotton products.

Sustainable Textile


Hemp is a durable and sustainable fibre that requires less water and fewer pesticides than traditional crops like cotton. It can be used to make fabrics and other fashionable products. It is heat resistor, breathable and has anti-bacterial properties.

Recycled Polyester

Recycled polyester is made from post-consumer plastic bottles, packets and other waste materials. It has a lower carbon footprint than traditional polyester and reduces waste by shifting plastic from landfills. The apparel or other products made from recycled polyester bears a specific logo so consumers can easily recognize it. 


Tencel is a fibre made from renewable raw materials like beech wood. It requires less water and energy than conventional materials and is biodegradable. Its manufacturing process is the same as viscose or rayon fibre. It is 100% biodegradable, has good absorbency, and an impressive nano-fibril structure results in a smooth surface.

Tencel Fibre


Pinatex is a sustainable material made from pineapple leaf fibres. It is an alternative to leather products like bags, shoes, wallets, watch bands, and seat covers. It reduces waste by utilizing pineapple waste. It is also low in cost.


Linen fibre is a sustainable textile fibre derived from the stems of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum). Flax is a plant that has been used for thousands of years to produce fabric and clothing due to its strength, durability, and natural beauty.

Linen fibres are longer and more substantial than cotton fibres, making them famous for high-quality clothing and household textiles. Linen fabrics are breathable, absorbent, and calm, making them ideal for warm weather or people who tend to overheat at night.

2. Water Conservation in Fashion

Water conservation in fashion refers to implementing measures to reduce the amount of water used in textile production and minimize water pollution. The fashion industry is a significant consumer of water, with textile production requiring large amounts of water for dyeing, finishing, and washing. Here are some examples of water conservation practices in the fashion industry:

Low-Water Dyeing

Implementing low-water dyeing techniques, such as air or foam dyeing, reduces the amount of water used in the dyeing process. These techniques also reduce the chemicals and energy required in the dyeing process. This reduces the water pollution.

Waterless Textile Processing

Waterless textile processing techniques, such as laser cutting, laser washing in denim eliminate the need for water in finishing and cutting processes, reducing water usage and waste.

Closed-Loop Water Systems

Closed-loop systems help mitigate the environmental impact of water usage by reducing the demand for freshwater resources and minimizing wastewater discharge. It can reduce water usage by up to 90%.

Water Stewardship

Adopting water stewardship practices, such as implementing water-saving technologies and monitoring water usage, helps fashion brands to reduce their water footprint and promote responsible water management.

3. Renewable Energy in Fashion

Renewable energy in fashion refers to using clean and sustainable energy sources, such as solar, wind, or hydroelectric power, to power fashion companies' manufacturing, distribution, and retail operations. Renewable energy sources are an important part of sustainable practices in the fashion industry. They help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize environmental impact, and promote a more sustainable future.

Here are some examples of how renewable energy can be used in the fashion industry:

Solar Power

Manufacturing companies can install solar panels in their manufacturing facilities and warehouses to generate electricity from the sun. This reduces reliance on fossil fuels and minimizes greenhouse gas emissions. The machinery employed with raw material production cannot run through solar panels. Still, they can run the low energy-consuming options like lights, or fans can run with solar panels.

Wind Power

Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity for fashion companies, particularly those located in windy areas. This clean and renewable energy source does not produce greenhouse gas emissions.

Hydroelectric Power

Some fashion companies can also use hydroelectric power to generate electricity. This involves harnessing the power of moving water from rivers or waterfalls to turn turbines and generate electricity.

Energy Efficiency

Fashion companies can also improve their energy efficiency by using energy-efficient lighting and appliances, implementing energy management systems, and reducing energy waste.

4. Circular Fashion

Circular fashion refers to designing, producing, and consuming clothing in a closed-loop system that minimizes waste and maximizes the use of resources. It aims to create a circular economy for fashion, in which products are reused, repaired, and recycled rather than disposed of after a single use.

Here are some examples of circular fashion practices:

Design for Circular

Designing products with circularity in mind using recyclable or biodegradable materials and creating easily disassembled products for reuse or recycling. Such as, we can reuse polyester fibre called recycled polyester, in clothing. You can find the recycled polyester fibre tag on the garment label made from recycled polyester.

Product Life Extension

Extending the life of products through repair, refurbishment, or upcycling reduces waste and extends the product's useful life, such as we can use different clothing to make rugs.

Rental and Resale

Offering rental and resale options for clothing, allowing products to be used by multiple customers, reducing the need for new products, and minimizing waste. Such as, second-hand garments are sold in poor economic countries.

Recycling and Upcycling

Recycling materials to create new products, such as turning discarded fabrics into new garments or upcycling products by repurposing them into new designs.

Waste Reduction

Reducing waste by using modern cutting technologies that maximize fabric utilization, creating products on demand, and minimizing leftover fabric waste.

Fashion Industry Wastage

5. Eco-Friendly Packaging

Eco-friendly packaging in fashion refers to using sustainable and environmentally-friendly materials and practices for packaging fashion products. Traditional packaging materials, such as plastic and paper, can have a significant environmental impact due to their production, use, and disposal. Eco-friendly packaging in fashion aims to minimize this impact and promote more sustainable packaging practices.

Here are some examples of eco-friendly packaging practices in fashion:

Biodegradable Materials

Using biodegradable materials, such as corn starch or plant-based plastics, for packaging instead of traditional plastic materials such as PVC. These materials break down naturally and do not harm the environment seriously.

Recyclable Materials

Use recyclable materials, such as paper or cardboard, instead of polybag packaging. These materials can be reused or recycled after use, reducing waste and promoting a circular economy.

Minimal Packaging

Using minimal packaging for fashion products, such as reducing the amount of paper, plastic, or other materials used, reduces waste and minimizes environmental impact. You may find unnecessary hang tags or plastic clips in the apparel packaging, which the manufacturers may avoid.

Sustainable Production

Using sustainable production methods for packaging, such as using renewable energy sources like solar panels or reducing the amount of water and energy used in production systems.

Branding and Marketing

Using eco-friendly packaging as part of the brand's marketing and communication strategy promotes the company's commitment to sustainability and environmental responsibility. This packaging may be indicated through a recycling logo.

6. Slow Fashion

Slow fashion is a movement that promotes sustainable and ethical fashion practices by prioritizing quality over quantity and encouraging consumers to buy and wear clothing for extended periods. It is the antithesis of fast fashion, which focuses on producing cheap, trendy clothing quickly and on a large scale.

The slow fashion movement aims to create a more sustainable and ethical fashion industry by promoting the following practices:

Sustainable Materials

Using sustainable materials, such as organic cotton, BCI cotton or recycled polyester, and natural dyes from plants or animals, have a lower environmental impact than traditional materials that slow down fast fashion.

Ethical Production

Prioritizing fair labor practices and ethical production methods, such as safe working conditions, fair wages, and transparency in the supply chain.

Quality over Quantity

Focusing on producing high-quality, timeless designs made to last rather than having trendy, disposable clothing that is quickly discarded. We should never forget that quality costs less.

Local Production

Supporting local and small-scale production, reducing the environmental impact of transportation, and promoting local economies. For example, American clothing demand can be reduced by its local fashion houses.

Consumer Education

Educating consumers about sustainable fashion practices and the environmental and social impact of the fashion industry. This should be the first on the priority list.

7. The Role of Technology in Creating Eco-Friendly Fashion

Technology is vital in creating eco-friendly fashion by enabling fashion brands to use sustainable materials and production methods, reducing waste, and improving supply chain transparency. Here are some examples of how technology is used in creating eco-friendly fashion:

Sustainable Materials

Technology is being used to develop new sustainable materials, such as plant-based materials, recycled fibres, organic fibres, and biodegradable fabrics. Innovations in material science and technology make it possible to create sustainable alternatives to traditional materials, reducing the fashion industry's environmental impact. Now a day, the use of organic cotton and recycled polyester in clothing has lightened the hope of consciousness both in the fashion industry and the consumers.

3D Printing

3D printing technology creates prototypes and samples, reducing the need for physical prototypes and minimizing waste. It also allows for more precise production, reducing material waste. Already some countries are using this technology in their fashion industry.

Digital Design and Printing

Digital design tools and digital printing technology are being used in many textile industries to reduce the amount of fabric waste during production. Digital printing allows for more accurate and efficient use of fabric, minimizing wastewater and reducing the environmental impact of the production process.

Textile Printing Machine

Supply Chain Transparency

Technology improves supply chain transparency, allowing brands and consumers to trace the origin of materials and products, ensuring ethical and sustainable production practices.

Recycling and Upcycling

Technology is being used to develop new recycling and upcycling methods, allowing for the creation of new products from recycled or upcycled materials. This reduces waste and promotes a circular economy for fashion.


By adopting eco-friendly practices, the fashion industry can reduce its environmental impact and promote a more sustainable and ethical future for fashion production and consumption. Consumers can also play a role by making informed choices about the clothing they purchase, supporting sustainable and ethical fashion brands, and prioritizing quality over quantity.

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Corduroy Fabric: Definition, Types, Manufacturing Process and Characteristics


Corduroy fabric is a versatile and long-lasting fabric that has existed for couple of centuries. Its popularity has declined, but it has remained a wardrobe staple due to its ability to keep us warm, comfortable, and fashionable. Its unique texture has ridges or cords, giving it a unique look and feel. In this article, we will explore the definition, types, manufacturing process and characteristics of corduroy fabric and some tips on how to wear and care for it.


Corduroy is a fabric appertaining to raised and fluffy parallel cords or ridges on its surface. These cords are created by the way the fabric is woven, with the ridges running perpendicular to the length of the fabric. It can be made from various materials, including cotton, polyester, and blends of different fibers like cotton-elastane, cotton-polyester etc.

What is Corduroy Fabric?

It is usually a heavier and thicker fabric, which makes it enduring and long-lasting. It is commonly used for clothing such as pants, jackets, and skirts, as well as for upholstery and home decor items like cushions and curtains. The width and spacing of the cords can differ, with wider and more widely-spaced lines known as elephant corduroy and narrower stripes known as pinwale or needlecord corduroy.


This fabric has retained its value for centuries after centuries and originates in ancient Egypt, where it was used for clothing and upholstery. It gained popularity in Europe during the 18th century, where it was used for workwear and outdoor clothing due to its long-lasting and warmth. Then in the 20th century, it became popular with the youth culture, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, when it was worn as a symbol of rebellion and anti-establishment. 


There are several types of corduroy fabrics, which vary in terms of their structure and wales per inch. The top 7 best types of corduroy include:

Types Wale Count
Elephant or Jumbo Cord 1 to 3
Broad Wale Cord 4 to 10
Standard or Classic Cord 11 to 14
Bedford Cord N/A
Needle Cord 14 to 21
Pin Cord 16 to 21
Baby Cord 25 to 30

Elephant or Jumbo Cord

Elephant or Jumbo cord is a corduroy fabric with a more comprehensive wale count than broad wale corduroy. It typically has a wale count (number of ridges per inch) ranging from 1 to 3, with the widest ridges of any corduroy fabric. This gives the fabric a distinctive, lumpy texture often compared to an elephant's skin, therefore, the name. Elephant cord is typically made from a cotton or cotton-polyester blend material and is used in various applications, including furniture upholstery, home decor, and clothing. It is a heavy-duty fabric that is durable and long-lasting, making it a popular choice for items that will receive a lot of wear and tear. Elephant cord is available in various colors and is often used to create bold, statement pieces of clothing or furniture. It is a unique and eye-catching fabric that adds texture and dimension to any project.

Elephant or Jumbo Corduroy

Broad Wale Cord

Broad wale cord is a fabric with a wider wale count than standard or classic cord but not as wide as elephant cord. The wale count typically ranges from 4 to 10, with fewer ridges per inch than elephant cord. This gives broad wale corduroy a more distinct and prominent texture. It is made from a cotton and cotton blend, and the wider ridges make it a popular choice for clothing items such as jackets, vests, and skirts, as well as for home decor applications such as upholstery and drapes. The fabric is available in various colors and can be dressed up or down depending on the occasion. It has a vintage feel and adds texture and interest to any project. It is a popular fabric choice for designers and consumers who want a unique, textured fabric with a retro feel. 

Broad wale corduroy

Standard or Classic Cord

Standard or classic cord refers to the standard and most commonly used type of corduroy fabric. It typically has a wale count ranging from 11 to 14 and is made from 100% cotton or cotton blend. It is durable and warm, making it a popular option for garments items such as pants, jackets, and skirts. It has a soft and velvety texture due to the raised parallel cords or ridges that run vertically down the fabric. Depending on the occasion, it is available in various colors and can be dressed up or down. It is a timeless fabric that has been popular for decades and is a favorite among fashion designers and consumers.

Standard or Classic Corduroy

Bedford Cord

Bedford cord is a durable and sturdy woven fabric that corresponds to corduroy in texture but has a more subtle ribbed effect. It is characterized by raised lengthwise ridges or cords woven into the fabric, with crosswise threads that bind them together. It can be made from various fibres, including cotton, wool, and polyester, and is often used for clothing and home decor applications like Cushions, Rugs and Chair covers. It is also suitable for jackets, skirts, blazers, coats, and workwear.

It was initially developed in Bedford, England, in the 19th century. It quickly became famous for use in workwear and military uniforms due to its strength and durability. It is often used in earthy or neutral colors, and its ribbed texture adds a subtle depth and interest to attire.

Needle Cord

A needle cord, or micro cord, is a corduroy fabric with an excellent wale count. It typically has a wale count that ranges from 14 to 21, which is higher than traditional corduroy but lower than pin cord. The delicate ridges of the needle cord give it a soft and comfortable texture providing a distinctive corduroy texture.

Needle Corduroy

It is commonly made from cotton or a cotton blend and is often used for clothing items such as pants, skirts, and jackets. It is also famous for home decor projects, including upholstery and throw pillows. The fabric's soft texture makes it an excellent choice for clothing worn during the fall and winter, and its fine ridges add interest and dimension to any project.

Pin Cord

It is a type of corduroy fabric characterized by its delicate, densely packed ridges. It has a much higher wale count than standard or classic corduroy, typically ranging from 16 to 21 wales per inch. The fabric is made from a blend of cotton and synthetic fibres like polyester and spandex, which gives it a soft texture and a slight sheen.

Pinwale corduroy

It is a versatile fabric for jackets, trousers, skirts, and dresses. It is also used for home decor items such as cushions, curtains, and upholstery. It is lightweight and comfortable, making it a popular choice for clothing worn in spring and summer.

Baby Cord

Baby cord, feather cord, or baby skin is a lightweight fabric with an excellent wale count. The wale count for baby cords typically ranges from 25 to 30, which is higher than needle cords and much higher than classic corduroy. The delicate ridges give the fabric a soft, velvety texture that is comfortable to wear and touch.

Baby Cord: 25 to 30 Ridges

It is often made from cotton or a cotton-polyester blend and is commonly used for clothing items such as shirts, blouses, dresses, and skirts. Its soft texture and lightweight feel make it an excellent choice for warmer weather. It is also used for home decor projects like cushion covers and curtains. Its smooth surface makes it a popular choice for children's clothing.

Difference between Bedford Cord and Corduroy fabric 

Bedford Cord Corduroy
The loose pile yarns remain uncut. The loose pile yarns are cut.
The ridges are less prominent. The ridges are prominent.
More durable fabric. Comparatively less durable fabric.

Manufacturing Process

The manufacturing process of corduroy fabric involves several steps:

Preparation of Yarn

The first raw material for corduroy fabric production is yarn. Generally, two types of yarn are used. One is for warp or wales, and another is for picks. One or more yarn is used in the Weft or pick direction. Warp yarns may be 100% cotton or chief value of cotton, and Weft yarns may be 100% cotton, cotton blend or elastane. The yarns may be dyed or undyed as required.


Weaving is the second step. In this step, the fabric is woven in an air jet loom according to the fabric structure and design. Cord fabric has two basic structures. One is plain, and another is twill. The width and spacing of the cords can vary depending on the preferred ridges of the fabric.


After the fabric is woven, it undergoes a process called shearing in the shearing machine, where the pile-forming picks are cut to a uniform length. This creates distinctive ridges or cords on the surface of the fabric.

V-Shaped Ridges of Corduroy

The fabric may have V-Shape ridges and W-Shaped ridges. The V-Shaped ridges are very simple and can quickly come out due to their single and simple interlacement. But the W-Shaped ridges are less likely to come out during use and care due to their multiple interlacements.

W-Shaped Ridges Corduroy Fabric


Corduroy fabric can be dyed in various colours using techniques like piece dyeing, garment dyeing, yarn dyeing and pigment dyeing.

In the piece dyeing method, the fabric is dyed after being woven and sheared. The fabric is usually immersed in an open dye bath, and the dye penetrates the fabric's fibres. The fabric is then sent to the finishing process.

Garment dyeing involves dyeing the fabric after it has been cut and sewn into a whole garment. This method allows for more significant colour consistency across the garment and creates unique colour effects.

In the yarn dyeing process, the yarns used to weave the fabric are dyed before the weaving process. This can result in a more precise colour diffusion throughout the fabric and can allow for the creation of complex patterns or designs.

Pigment dyeing involves the application of pigment dye to the fabric's surface. The pigments adhere to the fabric's fibres and create a coloured surface. This method can create unique colour effects and can be used to create a vintage or worn-in look. But its colorfastness is not so satisfactory.


When the fabric is sheared or dyed, it undergoes a series of finishing processes to improve its appearance and durability. These processes may include brushing, singeing, steaming, washing and calendaring. The fabric may also be treated with chemicals to make it resistant to wrinkles, stains, or other damage.


The fabric has several distinctive features, making it a popular clothing item and home decor choice. Here are some of the most common characteristics of cord fabric:


It has a raised surface that is made up of cut pick yarns. The fibres are typically arranged in ridges, known as wales, that run parallel. The wale size can vary, with larger wales known as broad-wale and smaller wales known as pinwale corduroy.


It is known for its softness and comfort. The tufted fibres of the fabric create a plush, gentle texture on the fabric's surface.


It is a durable fabric that withstands regular wear and tear. It is often used to make clothing items that require long lusting, such as pants, jackets, and upholstery.


The thick, fluffy texture of the fabric makes it suitable for cold weather. It provides warmth and insulation without feeling bulky.


It can be used for a variety of apparel items and home decor. It can also be dressed up or down depending on the occasion and is suitable for various styles, from casual to formal.

Colour Options

It is available in a wide range of colors and patterns, making it easy to find a style that suits your taste.

Wear And Care

This fabric can be worn in many ways, from casual to formal. Try pairing a corduroy jacket with jeans and a T-shirt for a casual look. Wear a corduroy skirt with a blouse and heels for a more traditional look. When caring for corduroy, it is essential to follow the care instructions on the garment's label. Typically, corduroy should be washed in cold water, hung to dry, or laid flat. It is also necessary to avoid ironing corduroy, as it can flatten the ridges and ruin the fabric's texture.


In conclusion, corduroy fabric's unique texture, comfort, and long-lasting property have made it a classic fabric that remains popular today. Whether you're looking for a cosy jacket or a statement piece of furniture, it is a versatile and stylish choice.

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Nonwoven Fabrics: An Overview

Definition of Nonwoven Fabric

Nonwoven fabric, also known as Nonwoven textile or Nonwoven material, is produced by bonding or felting fibres together without weaving or knitting them into a fabric. Unlike traditional woven or knitted fabrics, created by interlacing or interloping yarns in a specific pattern, Nonwoven fabrics are made by mechanically, chemically, or thermally bonding fibres or felting them through heat, pressure, or chemical processes.

Non-woven Fabric Overview

Nonwoven fabrics are typically made from various materials, including synthetic fibres such as polyester, polypropylene, and nylon, as well as natural fibres like cotton, wool, and viscose. These fibres are often mixed or layered to create a fabric with specific properties, such as strength, durability, softness, water resistance, or breathability.

Nonwoven fabrics are popular because they can be manufactured at a lower cost than traditional woven or knitted fabrics and can be designed to have specific characteristics tailored to the needs of different applications.

Properties of Nonwoven Fabric

The Nonwoven fabric possesses several unique properties that make it suitable for various applications. Some of the key properties of Nonwoven fabric include the following:


This fabric is highly porous, allowing air and liquids to pass through easily. This property makes it suitable for applications such as filtration, where porosity allows for efficiently filtering particles or contaminants.


This fabric is highly flexible and easily moulded into different shapes and forms. This property makes it suitable for applications requiring conformability and flexibility, such as in medical dressings, disposable diapers, and automotive interiors.


This fabric can have varying strength levels, depending on the manufacturing process and materials used. Some fabrics can exhibit high tensile strength, tear strength, and burst strength, making them suitable for applications where strength and durability are essential, such as in geotextiles, construction materials, and automotive components.


Some fabrics are highly absorbent, absorbing liquids quickly and holding them within the fabric structure. This property makes them suitable for wipes, medical dressings, and hygiene products.

Absorbency of Nonwoven Fabric

Barrier Properties

This fabric can be engineered to exhibit barrier properties, such as water resistance, oil resistance, and chemical resistance. This makes Nonwoven fabrics suitable for applications that require protection from liquids, chemicals, or other substances, such as protective clothing, packaging materials, and medical barriers.


These fabrics can be engineered to be soft and gentle to the touch, making them suitable for applications where comfort and sensory properties are essential, such as hygiene products, wipes, and medical textiles.


Some fabrics are breathable, allowing air and moisture vapour to pass through while preventing liquids from passing through. This property suits them for medical dressings, hygiene products, and breathable barriers.


These fabrics can be produced relatively cheaply compared to traditional woven or knitted materials, making them an economical choice for many applications.

Nonwoven Fabric Manufacturing Process

Nonwoven fabric is produced through various manufacturing processes, broadly categorized into mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods. Here is a general overview of some standard Nonwoven fabric manufacturing processes:

Nonwoven fabric manufacturing process

Mechanical Bonding

Mechanical bonding produces nonwoven fabrics where fibres are entangled through mechanical means rather than chemical or thermal bonding. In mechanical bonding, fibres are mechanically intertwined and locked together, resulting in a fabric with good strength and stability. Mechanical bonding involves several stages, including web formation, fibre opening, blending and mixing, and bonding. Mechanical bonding methods include needle punching and hydroentanglement.

Needle Punching

In needle punching or felting, fibres are fed onto a conveyor belt or web. A series of barbed needles penetrate the web, repeatedly entangling and interlocking the fibres. The barbs on the needles catch the fibres and pull them through the web, creating a fabric with good tensile strength and dimensional stability. The entanglement of fibres can be controlled to achieve different fabric properties such as thickness, density, and porosity. Needle punching is commonly used in automotive interiors, geotextiles, and insulation applications.

Learn more about: Needle Punching Method for Nonwoven


Hydroentanglement, spun lacing, or water jet entanglement involves high-pressure water jets to bond the fibres. The fibres are mixed with water and sprayed onto a moving belt or web. The high-pressure water jets entangle the fibres and form a fabric. The fabric is dried, and additional finishing treatments can be applied. Hydroentanglement is widely used in applications such as wipes, medical textiles, and filtration, where softness and absorbency are desired.

Chemical Bonding

In this process, chemicals bond the fibres together. Chemical bonding methods include adhesive bonding and foam bonding.

Adhesive Bonding

Adhesive bonding is a process where chemicals, such as adhesives or binders, are applied to the fibres to bond them together. The fibres are typically laid down in a web form, and the adhesive is used as a spray, foam, or powder. The web is then passed through heated rollers or ovens to activate the adhesive, which bonds the fibres together upon cooling. Adhesive bonding is commonly used in applications such as hygiene products like diapers, feminine care products, adult incontinence products, and automotive and filtration applications.

Foam Bonding

In this process, a foam layer is applied to the fibres, and heat is used to bond the foam and fibres together. Foam bonding is used for applications such as carpet backing and insulation.

Thermal Bonding

Thermal bonding involves using heat to melt or soften the fibres, which bond together upon cooling. There are several methods of thermal bonding:

Point Bonding

In point bonding, heated rollers or ultrasonic energy melt and bond the fibres at discrete points, creating a patterned or embossed fabric. Point bonding is used in applications such as disposable wipes, medical gowns, and industrial fabrics.

Through-Air Bonding

Through-air bonding (TAB) is a process where heated air is blown through the web of fibres, melting and bonding them together. TAB is commonly used for lightweight and soft Nonwoven fabrics, such as those used in hygiene products, filtration, and medical applications.

Calendar Bonding

Calendar bonding involves passing the fibres through heated rollers, which apply heat and pressure to melt and bond the fibres together. Calendar bonding can create Nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses, densities, and surface textures and is used in applications such as automotive interiors, filtration, and insulation.

Nonwoven Fabric Application Area

Nonwoven fabrics have various applications in various industries due to their unique properties, such as flexibility, durability, and cost-effectiveness. Some of the common application areas for nonwoven fabrics include:


Nonwoven fabrics are used in various healthcare products such as surgical gowns, face masks, and wound dressings due to their excellent barrier properties and ability to filter bacteria and viruses.

Personal Care and Hygiene

Nonwoven fabrics are used in diapers, feminine hygiene products, and wet wipes due to their softness, absorbency, and liquid repellency.


Nonwoven fabrics are used in car interiors, headliners, and trunk liners due to their lightweight, acoustic, and thermal insulation properties.


Nonwoven fabrics are used in crop protection, seedling covers, and greenhouse shading due to their ability to protect from weather, pests, and UV radiation.

Nonwoven fabric application, Geotextile


Nonwoven fabrics are used in geotextiles, roofing materials, and insulation due to their high strength, water resistance, and thermal insulation properties.


Nonwoven fabrics are used in air and water filtration systems due to their ability to filter out particles and pollutants.


Nonwoven fabrics are used in packaging applications such as bags, pouches, and wrappers due to their protection and durability.


Nonwoven fabrics are used in industrial applications such as wiping cloths, cleaning materials, and protective clothing due to their high absorbency, strength, and resistance to chemicals and heat.

Advantages of Nonwoven Fabric

Nonwoven fabrics have several advantages over other fabrics, making them suitable for various applications. Some of the advantages of nonwoven fabrics include the following:


Nonwoven fabrics are relatively inexpensive to produce compared to woven or knitted fabrics.


Nonwoven fabrics can be made from various materials, including natural fibres, synthetic fibres, and recycled materials.


Nonwoven fabrics are generally light, making them suitable for applications where weight is critical, such as in the automotive or aerospace industries.


Nonwoven fabrics can be engineered to have high strength and tear resistance, making them suitable for heavy-duty applications.


Nonwoven fabrics are resistant to wear and tear and can withstand harsh environments, making them ideal for use in outdoor applications.


Nonwoven fabrics can be designed to have high absorbency, making them suitable for use in personal care and hygiene products.

Barrier properties

Nonwoven fabrics can be designed to have excellent barrier properties, making them suitable for use in medical and industrial applications.

Ease of processing

Nonwoven fabrics can be produced using various methods such as melt-blown, spun bond, and needle punching, which are relatively simple and require less energy compared to traditional weaving or knitting.

Environmental friendliness

Nonwoven fabrics can be made from recycled materials, and some can be biodegradable, making them more environmentally friendly than other fabrics.

Disadvantages of Nonwoven Fabric

While nonwoven fabrics have many advantages, they also have some disadvantages that should be considered when selecting them for specific applications. Some of the disadvantages of nonwoven fabrics include the following:

Limited strength

Nonwoven fabrics can have lower strength compared to woven or knitted fabrics, making them unsuitable for some heavy-duty applications.

Lack of drape

Nonwoven fabrics can be stiff and lack the drape of woven or knitted fabrics, making them unsuitable for some apparel applications.

Lack of breathability

Some nonwoven fabrics can have low breathability, making them unsuitable for applications requiring air or water permeability.

Limited color options

Nonwoven fabrics can be more challenging to dye or print than woven or knitted fabrics, limiting the range of color options available.

Limited design options

Nonwoven fabrics can be challenging to manipulate into complex shapes or designs compared to woven or knitted fabrics.

Environmental concerns

Some nonwoven fabrics are made from synthetic materials that are not biodegradable and can contribute to environmental pollution if not correctly disposed of.


However, nonwoven fabrics also have disadvantages, including limited strength, lack of drape, limited breathability, limited color and design options, and environmental concerns. Nevertheless, technological advances and new manufacturing techniques address some limitations, making nonwoven fabrics increasingly popular for various applications.