Sunday, January 13, 2019

What is medical textile | Application area of medical textile

Definition of Medical Textile

Medical textile can be defined as fibre based products or structures used for first aid or the clinical treatment of a wound or medical condition.

It is a highly specialized and bio compatible technical textile, used for medical and hygiene application called ‘MEDTECH’. The characteristics required of MEDITECH vary depending on the task for which they are to be used. Some applications demand a protective function, others a high absorptive capacity and some others impermeability. Special antimicrobial finishes are given to make to medical textiles and it is an important characteristic of these textiles.

Medical textile

It is a combination of textile technology and medical science. In the field of medical application, technical textiles are not just used in contact with skin, but also fulfill important functions within the body (intra-corporal applications like implants). Technical textiles offer medical and hygiene industry with unparalleled protection, comfort and cost saving. It has become possible only due to development of new yarns and manufacturing technologies of yarn and fabric.

You may like also: What is Technical textile?

Medical textiles should be non-toxic and non-allergenic and able to sterilize without imparting any change in the physical and chemical characteristics.

Application area of medical textiles

1) Healthcare/hygiene products – Include bedding, clothing, surgical clothes, products for feminine hygiene like stationary napkins, baby and adult diapers, filters, bandages, support and protective material, surgical sutures, dental floss etc.

2) Non-implantable materials – For wound care that includes absorbent pad (wound contact layer, base material viscose, plastic film) and bandages (simple inelastic/elastic, orthopedic, plasters, gauzes, lint, padding).

3) Textiles in extracorporeal devices – Like artificial kidney, liver and lungs.

4) Implantable materials – Like sutures (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), soft tissue implants, artificial tendon (meshes), artificial ligament, artificial cartilage, orthopedic implants artificial joint, cardiovascular implants vascular grafts, heart valves.

Saturday, December 29, 2018

23 types of hand gloves [Images]

23 types of hand gloves are as follows:

Hand glove is a garment which covers the hand. We may find different types of hand gloves as follows – 

Thumbs hand gloves

Thumb gloves

Set-in thumb

Probably the most common thumb treatment.


A gusset type of thumb treatment.

Novelty thumb

The thumb is a separate piece of cloth set into the glove.


This is a construction, which aids flexibility.

Fingerless hand glove

This is like a normal glove except that the tops have been removed. Often it is knitted but it is sometimes made of leather.


Fingerless Lace Mitten hand glove

This mitten has very short fingers and is for formal and special occasions.

Fingerless Lace Mitten

Cycling Mitten hand glove

A fingerless mitten with leather palm and string back for cycling. It has a stretch rib cuff.

Cycling Mitten

Decorated mitten hand glove

This is a long glove with no fingers and half a thumb, highly decorated with gold threads on satin, for formal occasions.

Decorated mitten

Shooting hand glove

Used when shooting to protect the hand, it has an elasticized cuff.


Woodstock/Riding hand glove
A fawn skin glove used for horse riding.


Limerick hand glove
A glove made in newborn lamb leather.


Hawking hand glove

This fourteenth century glove was for hawking. It is long and made in leather to protect the arm.


York Tan hand glove

This can be a short or long glove named after its color color-tan.

York Tan

Slip-on hand glove

There are no fastenings; the glove is just pulled on.

York Tan

Sports hand glove

An insulated leather glove used in outdoor sports.

Sports glove

Button length/Mousquetaire hand glove

A long evening glove with a short wrist opening and small pearl buttons.

Button length/Mousquetaire

Glove with Liner hand glove

Two gloves in one for extra warmth.

Glove with Liner

Mitten hand glove

Four fingers are covered together, the thumb is solitary. This mitten can be knitted, woven or made from leather.


Berlin hand glove

A thin and neat glove made in strong cotton.

Berlin gloves

Knitted hand glove

As the name suggests, a totally knitted glove with no need for a guest.

Shortie hand glove

A wrist length glove, made in kid, cotton or nylon. It was very fashionable from the mid 1949s to the 1960s.


Gauntlet hand glove

A glove with a protective forearm cuff, this example shows the gauntlet cut in panels.


Golfing hand glove

Very similar to the driving glove, there are cut-outs over the knuckles and often a cut-out over the back of the hand.


Driving/String hand glove

This is a short glove with a leather palm; the back is knitted or made from another fabric, often knotted string. There is a buckle or stud fastener at the wrist.


White kid  hand Glove

A smart glove made in kid leather for formal day wear.

White kid gloves

Cuff Guards hand glove

Decorative and protective guards fort the wrists.

Cuff Guards

You may Like also - 
Different types of pockets

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Sewing thread: Definition, types and end uses


Sewing thread is a basic raw material for giving desired shape to a garment and holding the body parts together by creating seams. It is a very important item for tailoring shops, industrial garment manufacturers and fashion houses. It has both functional and aesthetic properties. When we are using it for making seams then it is playing its functional role and when we are using it for embellishment purposes like embroidery or applique then it is playing its aesthetic properties.
What is sewing thread
Sewing thread, Source: Free Images

Besides, it is also used in the automotive industries for making car seats, airbags, seat belts and the vehicle interior design. It is also used in the footwear industries. It has a great use in the embroidery industries too.

As sewing thread has a variety of types and end uses, we should have proper knowledge about it before buying and using. Now we will know about the definition, types and end uses from below illustration.

You may like also: What is Textile?

Definition of sewing thread

Sewing thread is a trim which ensures the functional properties of a garment or any clothing product by securing the seams. It is a special type of yarn which is used for sewing but not for knitting or weaving.

It can be made of staple fibre or continuous filaments by twisting hardly or slightly. Two or more filament yarns are twisted together to make threads. Sometimes single filament is also used. Natural or synthetic or blended fibres can be used to make sewing threads.

If we talk about closing and top stitch seams then core spun threads are perfect which can give outstanding quality seams. For over locking or cover stitch seams continuous bulk filament threads are perfect. For high quality denim garment, natural and synthetic fibre blended core spun threads are perfect for closing seams. For achieving perfect seam strength for leather goods, continuous filament threads are perfect.

You may like also: What is textile recycling?

Classification and end uses of sewing threads

Above 90% of sewing threads are manufactured for industrial and commercial purposes. Now a day manufacturers are producing threads of several categories according to end uses with tons of shades with better quality. There are several types of sewing threads are available but the main three basic types are done according to follows –
1. Substrate
2. Construction and
3. Finish

Sewing thread Classification according to substrate

According to substrate threads can be classified into two main categories: natural and synthetic.

Natural thread
These are used in a small quantity in the industrial area. It can be made of cotton, silk, wool, linen etc.

Cotton thread
Cotton is the most used natural sewing thread and ideal for basic sewing. It has better sew ability with less kinking or drop stitch. When sewing machines run for a long time needle generates heat which can easily be absorbed by cotton thread. It can easily be dyed and also well molded into the seams. Strength and abrasion resistance are not so good as compared to synthetic threads. Cotton thread can be classified into three categories as follows:
1. Soft
2. Glace and
3. Mercerized
What is sewing thread
Glaced cotton thread, Source: Free Images
Soft finished cotton threads are only bleached and then dyed. Glace cotton threads are treated with wax and special chemicals for hardness and glossy look. They have greater abrasion resistance than any other cotton threads. Mercerized cotton threads are treated with caustic solution to make them more smooth, lustrous and stronger.

1. Tea bag string
2. Soft finished threads are used in the low graded garments.
3. Glazed threads are used for sewing heavy materials, leather and canvas.
4. Mercerized cotton threads are used in the lingerie products and also for garment dye program.

Silk thread
Silk thread is costly compared to cotton thread. There are mainly three types of silk thread. They are lightweight, medium weight and heavy weight. Though silk thread is known for its use on embroidery purpose, it is also used for sewing silk and woolen products. It is an excellent sewing thread as it is very flexible and leaves no hole on seams of the products. It can be of double ply or triple ply.
What is sewing thread
Silk threads, Source: Free images
1. Used for embroidery purposes.
2. Hand sewing and embellishment purposes.
3. Coarser silk threads are used for quilting, making appliques, bindings and tailoring button holes.
4. Light weight silk threads are used for delicate fabrics.
Woolen thread
Woolen threads are stronger than cotton and linen threads and used for embroidery projects and also for making stitches on blankets. Woolen threads are of three types. They are persian, tapestry and crewel. Persian woolen threads are heavy weight, tapestry threads are medium weight and crewel are light weight.
Definition of thread
Woolen thread
1. Used for embroidery purposes.
2. Used for making stitches on blankets.
3. Stitching heavy weight fabrics like canvas and woolen.

Linen thread
Linen is the oldest textile sewing thread. It is suitable for lock stitch seams. It is very easy to dye and swells when wet. Seam made of linen thread enhances the aesthetic properties of a garment as for its natural look.
Types of thread
Linen thread
1. Bedding and mattress.
2. Book binding.
3. Canvas.
4. Carpets.
5. Lace.
6. Outdoor goods and sports.
7. Automotive industries.

Synthetic sewing threads
The most common synthetic sewing thread used is made of polyester and nylon. Synthetic fibre threads have more resistance to abrasion, less shrinkage, good colorfastness and stronger than natural fibre threads. Due to limitations of natural fibre threads, manufacturers turned to synthetic fibre threads.

Polyester threads
Polyester threads are stronger and have excellent sew ability. Lubrication is done to make these ready to easily pass through the fabric or leather with little friction. These are suitable for sewing knitted, woven or leather products according to construction and finishes. These are shinier to look at than plain cotton threads.
Definition of thread
Polyester thread
1. Blouses
2. Jeans
3. Lingerie
4. Shirts
5. Suits
6. Uniforms
7. Swimwear

Nylon thread
It is stronger, finer and more durable sewing synthetic thread. It is suitable for sewing light to medium weight clothing. Sometimes it is specially lubricated for high temperature resistance and better performance without breakage or staining.
What is sewing thread
Nylon thread
1. Leather footwear
2. Leather goods
3. Luggage and travel goods
4. Outdoor goods
5. Sports goods

Sewing thread classification according to construction

Can be classified as follows:

Spun thread
Spun thread can be made of either from natural fibre or from synthetic fibre. The most common used spun thread is polyester. Staple or spun thread is made from short length fibres. Cotton, wool, flax etc. are natural staple fibres. Synthetic fibres such as polyester or acrylic can be cut into short length and twisted together to create spun or staple thread. Durable and long lasting seams can be made with staple or spun thread.

1. Blouses
2. Children wear
3. Denim/Jeans
4. Knitwear
5. Shirts
6. Underwear
7. Jackets

Core-spun thread
It is an industrial thread. Core-spun means continuous filament is in center and staple fibres are mess up around it. It is 40% to 50% stronger than normal spun thread of same weight. Core-spun thread can reduce the number of broken stitches during sewing seams or hems on heavy weight fabric like denim.

1. Blouses
2. Jeans
3. Lingerie
4. Shirts
5. Leather products
6. Uniforms

Filament thread
It can be made of a single filament or by twisting more than one filament together or by a little twist of bulk filaments. There are mainly three types of filament threads as follows:

Monofilament thread
It is made of single continuous fibre. It is stronger and inexpensive but has limitations in usage due to stiffness and less flexibility. Silk is an example of natural continuous monofilament thread.

1. Invisible seams
2. Hair wraps.
3. Quilting
4. Flags
5. Upholstery
6. Clothing

Multifilament thread
It is made of more than one continuous filaments twisted together. Normally nylon or polyester fibres are used to make this type of threads. It is used where more strength is required.
1. Leather goods
2. Footwear
3. Garment embellishment
4. Vehicle interior
5. Luggage and travel goods

Bulk filament or texturized thread
Many filaments are bonded together with a very little twist to make this thread. Usually polyester filaments are used to make it. It is soft, voluminous and skin friendly and used for cover stitch seams. It gives maximum edge covering.

1. Men and ladies wear
2. Sports and outdoor wear
3. Underwear and lingerie

Sewing thread classification based on finishes

In the sewing thread manufacturing factories, finishes are given on sewing threads in the finishing departments to improve sew ability and to achieve any specific functional requirement.

Flame retardant finish
This type of finish is given to make the sewing thread resistant to flame.

1. Flame resistance and protective wear
2. Industrial gloves
3. Military protective wear
4. Work wear

Anti static finish
A special type of finish is given to make the thread protective against static charge build up.

1. Suits and footwear for electric assembly line workers
2. Conductive textiles

Water repellent finish
Hydrophobic finish is given to make the thread water repellent which is used to make water repellent seams.

1. Rain coats
2. Outer wear

So we can say that, if we want a good quality and desired sewing thread, we should have the above knowledge. Please feel free to share this article with your friends and colleagues.

       Amann group
       - Wiki How
       - Coats

Saturday, December 15, 2018

What is Textile waste | Definition, Meaning and Types

Waste is very common term and we create different types of wastes in our daily life. But have you ever heard about textile or clothing waste? If not then you must go through this article. Or if yes then you should be clarified about the term and its type.


Waste is a kind of thing that you don’t want to produce but produce unwantedly. It has a great economic impact from production process to consumer end. When you use a product for a long time then it becomes a favorite item for you and you don’t want that it becomes wastage. Such as your favorite underwear someday becomes a piece of waste unwantedly. In the same way wastage is a big term for the manufacturers like textile or clothing manufacturers in their production process. When the production quantity is large then the amount of wastage will be high.

Definition of Textile waste
Wastage or waste can be defined as such kind of materials that don’t come into use after the end of the process or the basic use of a product. It is one kind of worthless or useless or defective material.

So textile wastage can be defined as the material that becomes unusable or worthless after the end of the production process of any textile product. Wastage produce in every stage of the textile manufacturing process such as spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, finishing and clothing.

Textile wastage is a great threat for any textile industry and the environment as well. When fibre bales are processed through the blow room section in a spinning mill a huge amount of cotton wastage produces. So it is an economic threat. In a dyeing factory tons of fabric dyed and tons of waste water produced which is a great threat for the environment.

Types of Textile waste
Textile wastage can come from different textile manufacturing departments like spinning, weaving, dyeing, finishing, garments manufacturing and even from the consumer end. Now we will know about the details from the below points.

Spinning waste
Cotton fibre bale contains a lot of wastages such as foreign particles, dust, seeds, short fibres etc. and so when processed through different sections of a spinning mill then different types of wastage produced in different sections. The wastage % in blow room is 3% and blow room waste is called lap waste. Carding section wastage % is about 10%. The wastages of carding section are called dropping-1, dropping-2 and sliver waste. The wastage % in draw frame section is about 0.5%. The wastage of this section is called sliver waste. The wastage % in comber section is about 14-15% and the wastages are called noils, lap and vacuum waste. The % of wastage in simplex section is about 0.5% and the wastages are called roving and sliver wastage. The wastage % of ring frame is 2-2.5% and the wastages are called pneumafil, hard waste, vacuum waste etc.


Weaving waste
Like spinning mills different types of wastages found in weaving mills also. Now we will know about it.


Residual yarns which are left on the cones after warping are considered as wastages. In the warping creel section it is not possible to empty all the cones and there will always be a little amount of yarn left on the cones. Sizing waste is another kind of waste in a weaving factory. When in the weavers beam section a new set of warp yarn is started then it is necessary to eliminate some portions of the yarns to ensure that properly sized yarns are wounded on the weavers beam. After sizing wastage, comes the knotting wastage. Knotting is done to ensure all the warp ends of two beams are available for attaching together. Beam residual wastage is another kind of weaving wastage. When a weaver beam is finished, a small amount of warp yarn remains unused on the weavers beam and it is not possible to finish yet. Auxiliary selvage wastage is also a common weaving wastage. Auxiliary selvage is a fake selvage used to hold the weft yarn during loom beat up period.

Knitting waste
Knitting has a glorious history. Knitting can be done on machine or by hand. There are various types of knitting styles and methods. If any fault occurs in the knitting process or any fault in the raw materials there will be knitting wastage. Now we will know about the different types of knitting wastage.


When a new order is created the merchandiser makes sample first. To make sample, trials run in the knitting machine. Due to trials knitting wastage generated. In knitting floor wastage may occur due to yarn. If the cone is faulty or the yarn is faulty then wastage may generate. Fly generation from different yarn guides also cause knitting wastage. There are various types of knitted fabric faults like barriness, spirality, thick and thin place, holes, slubs, sinker marks, stains, stripes etc. Due to these fabric faults knitting wastage generated. Besides due to wrong knitting program, knitting wastage generated.

Dyeing waste
Textile dyeing factories are the most common factories to generate waste water which is a great threat for our environment. Many machine manufacturing companies are trying to introduce new technologies to reduce waste water. Some are trying to develop waterless dyeing methods.


Besides, there are various types of dyeing faults. Due to different types of dyeing faults, wastages generated. The most common dyeing faults are uneven dyeing, batch to batch shade variation, crease marks, selvage to selvage shade variation for denim, metamerism etc. Due to these faults wastage generated in the dyeing floor.

Clothing waste
In a clothing industry there are different types of sections like cutting, bundling & shorting, sewing, printing, embroidery, finishing. In every section wastages produce. Cutting section is the main section to produce wastage in a clothing factory. Due to several roles and marker utilization, a huge amount of wastages produce in the cutting section. After cutting all the body parts are inspected and then shorted and bundled. For this reason some faulty pieces may remain in this section as wastage. Then the loaders take these bundled pieces and distribute in the sewing section. In the sewing section if a worker finds any faulty piece, he rejects it. Due to this reason wastage generated in the sewing section. In the printing section if any print doesn’t match with the standard, the garment piece will be a waste. In the embroidery section, if the embroidery is not done on the proper place, the garment will be treated as wastage. In the finishing section if there is measurement defect, trims or press defect there will generate wastage.


Consumer waste
Global clothing production has been doubled from the last decade. The average lifetime of a garment product is approximately 3 years. The average person buys 50% more items of clothing every year and keeps them for about half as long as 15 years ago which generating a huge amount of textile waste. 


From the above discussion it is clear that textile waste is generated at the manufacturers end and also at the consumers end. It has no advantage but disadvantage both economically and environmentally. The manufacturers can put emphasizes on new technologies to reduce wastages and the consumers should be more conscious about it. Textile recycling is also a way to minimize wastage.

You may like also: What is Textile Recycling

Saturday, November 24, 2018

Cotton VS Wool – Which one is more comfortable?

We live in a modern era and so our taste and style is changing very rapidly. Style is changing but comfortless product is not desirable. So style will be changed but the product should be comfortable and easy to wear.

Different types of fibres like cotton, wool, silk, nylon, polyester etc. are used to make textile products like underwear, outerwear, casualwear, swimwear, beachwear etc. But we can’t use all types of fibres to make all types of products because of its comfort-ability and application. Such as we can’t use 100% cotton yarn to make swimwear or we can’t use 100% wool for underwear. And so sometimes we use blends to make the product more comfortable.

Difference between cotton and wool

Generally we use wool to make blankets, horse rugs, carpeting, insulation and upholstery and cotton to make t-shirts, underwear and denim. So here comes the question which one is more comfortable Cotton or Wool? It is very tough to find the answer but in this article we will try to dig out the answer. Before that we will know about cotton, wool and their differences.

Definition of cotton
Cotton is a natural cellulosic staple fibre harvested from white soft and fluffy balls around cotton seeds of cotton plants. It is one of the most cultivated profitable non-food crops on earth. It is known for its versatile end uses and natural comfort. Approximately 50% of the total textile products are made from cotton.

At first cotton fibres are separated from its seeds by ginning method and then processed through blow
Cotton plant
room to mix and blend and then through carding to reduce entangled mass of fibres and make it filmy web of cotton and then processed though combing to remove short fibres, neps and impurities. Lastly it is processed through roving frame to prepare the sliver fit for ring frame to make yarn.

Yarns are then used to make fabrics by knitting or weaving process. Cotton products are colored by using different types dyeing methods like yarn dyeing, fabric dyeing, garments dyeing etc. 

Definition of Wool
Wool is a protein fibre obtained from sheep and other animals like goats (cashmere and mohair).

Wool grows on the bodies of the sheep. It is harvested by shearing and trimming the living animals and so raw wool feels greasy. It also comes in a variety of natural qualities.During growing and harvesting wool animals can be hurt so farmers should be professional and trained.

After shearing, wool is processed through scouring treatment to remove oil, grease and impurities. Then the fibres are carded to make parallel and ready to spin. Dyeing is done before carding in case of colored products. After that finally spinning is done to make woolen yarn.

Comparison between Cotton and Wool
We will show you a comparison between cotton and wool before saying that which textile product is more comfortable…

Differenc between cotton and wool

From the above comparison we can come in a conclusion that, when you have a sensitive skin then cotton products are suitable for you. During the winter season woolen product will perform well as it can insulate your body even though it is wet. And obviously during the summer season it is better to worn cotton product as it is breathable. When you are looking for a handkerchief or bras then cotton products will be incomparable and when you are looking for a winter jacket then woolen insulated jacket is incomparable. Using and taking care of cotton products are much easier than woolen products as cotton products are lighter and easy to wash and woolen products are heavier and needed to be dry cleaned.

So hope that guys you got your answer. You may like also: