Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Processing Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A yarn is a continuous and uniform mass of fibres bounded together by the insertion of twist. Yarns are raw material of the fabric. The thickness of the yarn varies to a wide range. Normally, the thickness of a yarn is expressed in terms of count. Count may be defined as the number which expresses the fineness or coarseness of a yarn. The yarns may be spun from staple fibre or continuous filaments. Normally majority yarns are produced from staple fibre. To produce yarns from staple fibres, a wide range of machines are needed, called spinning machines.

Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A process flow chart of spinning machines and step – wise process sequence for producing cotton staple yarn is shown below:
Cotton in bale form
Blow room machine
Carding machine
Drawing machine
Roving machine
Spinning machine
Cotton yarn

Now I’ll describe the stages in brief as follows –
Cotton in Bale form
Bales are of raw cotton always contains a certain amount of impurities termed as ‘Trash’. The trash materials are broken seeds, husks, broken leaf, dirt’s, and short fibres etc. materials. The amount of trash varies from 1% to 15% depending on the quality of the fibres. Normally imported cotton fibrs are in bale form, which are highly compact form.
Blow room
Blow room is the starting section of a cotton yarn spinning mill. A series of different types of opening, cleaning, and mixing machines are used as per sequence in this section.
Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled or matted mass of fibres to a filmy web by working them between two closely spaced, relatively moving surfaces clothed with sharp points. A carding action is obtained when the teeth on the two surfaces are made to work point to point. When they are made to work point to back, the action is called stripping action.
Drawing Frame
The delivered sliver form the carding machine in coil form within the sliver can is fed in the drawing frame. The drawing frame may be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 headed machines. Two headed machine means two slivers will be delivered in that machine.  
Speed/Roving Frame
The delivered sliver from the drawing frame in the sliver can is fed in the speed frame. The speed frame is also called roving frame.
Ring Spinning
Ring spinning is a universal spinning system. The process involved in ring spinning is creeling, drafting, twisting, winding, building up and doffing. In normal ring frames, the number of spindles are 400-500, but 1000 delivery i.e. spindle per ring frame is also available. The delivered rovings in bobbin form is fed in the creels of the ring frame. The rovings are unwound by pulling action and passed through the drafting zone. At the front side of drafting rollers that is front roller, the drafted fibres become twisted and forms yarn.
Delivery package that is yarn bobbin is situated on the spindle. The delivered yarn is wound on the yarn bobbin.
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