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Sunday, November 8, 2015

Different types of Home Textiles

Introduction of Home Textile

Home textile is a branch of technical textile comprising application of textiles in household purposes. Home textiles are nothing but an internal environment, which deals with internal spaces and their furnishings. Home textiles are mainly used for their functional and aesthetic properties which provides us the mood and also gives mental relaxation to the people.

Definition of Home Textile

Home textiles can be defined as the textiles used for home furnishing. It consists of a various range of functional as well as decorative products used mainly for decorating our houses. The fabrics are used for home textiles consists of both natural and man-made fibres. Sometimes we also blend these fibres to make the fabrics stronger. Generally, home textiles are produced by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibers together.

Different types of Home Textile products

A considerable portion of home furnishings consists of textiles. A number of these furnishings are typical in households and are made according to certain general methods of construction and composition. The basic items may be grouped as Sheets and Pillowcases, Blankets, Terry towels, Table cloths, and carpets and Rugs.

Sheets and Pillowcases
References to sheets and pillowcases are generally related to fabrics woven with a plain weave of cotton, or more often, cotton/polyester blended yarns. If they have easy care, no-iron properties, they are likely to be so labeled. It may be noted that sheets and pillowcases are also made to a laminated extent of linen, silk, acetate, and nylon; the constructions vary from plain to satin weave or knitted.

Sheets and Pilow Cases

Sheets and pillowcases are identified according to types based on thread count: 124, 128, 130, 140, 180, and 200. The higher the count, the closer and more uniform the weave; the more compact the weave, the greater the resistance to wear.
Sheets and pillowcases are generally labeled. But one can always examine them for quality. By holding the fabric up to the light, one can determine whether it is firmly, closely and uniformly woven. It should look smooth. Lengthwise and crosswise threads should be of the same even thickness, rather than thick or thin in spots. There should be no weak places, knots, or slubs, and the yarns should run straight and unbroken.
Sheets are made in two types: flat and fitted. Both types are made to fit five typical size mattress: crib, twin, full or double, queen, and king. Pillowcases are generally produced in sizes to fit pillows of standard, queen and king size.

Blankets
Blankets are made of various constructions and compositions, which provide different degrees of warmth, softness, and durability. They are usually woven, but can be knitted or stitch-knitted or by flocking fibres onto a polyurethane foam base. The yarns may be composed wholly or of blends of cotton, wool, nylon, acrylic, or polyester.

Blankets

Blankets may be classified into three basic types: conventional, thermal, and flocked polyurethane. Their characteristics are somewhat different in appearance, texture, warmth, durability and care.
Conventional blankets are usually woven with soft-twist yarns, in the filling and higher twist yarns in the warp. The yarns may be of wool, acrylic, polyester, or blends of these fibres. Blends containing nylon are also used. The fabric is heavily napped to produce a thick, close, fuzzy surface. Thermal blankets are either woven in a variation of the plain weave, such as a honeycomb pattern, or knitted in a manner that produces an open lightweight construction. The soft-twist yarns may be of cotton, wool, acrylic, polyester, or a blend of any of these fibres. The fabric is not napped. Flocked polyurethane blankets are composed of polyurethane foam base covered with fibre flocking, usually nylon, held in position with an acrylic adhesive. They are very soft, resilient, and sometimes spongy. They tend to have a misty appearance, particularly in the lighter colors, due to the flocking. They are relatively light in weight.

Terry Towels
The primary function of a terry towel is to absorb moisture from wet skin. It must, however, be strong enough to withstand the strain of the rubbing and pulling, twisting and tugging of the user, and of constant laundering. Terry towels are made either of all-cotton, or a combination of cotton and polyester. While polyester provides increased strength, lighter weight, faster drying after laundering and less shrinkage, all-cotton towels provide greater absorbency.

terry towels

One should not purchase towels merely by a brand name because the name identifies only the manufacturer, not a particular quality of terry towels. A company may manufacture many different grades and qualities of terry towels under the same brand name.
Terry towels are divided by size into five groups, guest, hand, bath, extra large, and beach.

Tablecloths
Table cloths are generally made of cotton, linen, rayon, polyester, or blends of any combination of these fibres. They are produced in various ways, designs, and patterns. Among the most popular are damask and lace constructions. Of the damask, linen is the most expensive and has set the mode or style frequently imitated with the less costly fibres. Although linen damask generally requires greater care of laundering and ironing than such easy care finished cloths as are made from cotton/polyester blends, linen damask tablecloths continue to enjoy a high status because of their beauty, luxuriousness, and durability.

Table Cloths

Carpets and Rugs
Floor coverings have been made from textile fibres for more than five thousand years. Throughout civilization, rugs and carpets have formed a part of the history and culture of races and nations. Well chosen rugs and carpets serve as a colorful foundation for the decorative plan and color scheme of all rooms in the modern home including kitchen, bathrooms, patios and pool edges, as well as for schools, office buildings, and hospitals. Carpets also serve as heat and sound insulators. As floor coverings are among the more costly items in a house furnishings budget, careful consideration must be given to fibre, color, decorative character and design, size and construction to obtain the best value of any price level.

Carpets and Rugs

The term “rug” and “carpet” are sometimes used synonymously, but the form or the size in which these coverings are manufactured differs. Rugs may vary in shape as well as in width and length. The factors that account for differences in price are the type, quality, and quantity of fibre used, as well as the amount of twist in the yarn, the number of plies in the yarn, and the basic method of construction. Machine-made carpets may be tufted, woven, needled or knitted.

Thursday, November 5, 2015

What is Textile Industry | Definition and Meaning

Before learning about Textile Industry, first we should know what is textile? The basic meaning of Textile is woven or knitted fabric made from yarn. But apart from fibre, yarn and fabric or any other product made from these combinations are defined Textiles. Textile is also associated with clothing production. Fibre is the raw material of textile which may be natural or man-made.

Definition of Textile Industry

The textile industry is the industry which involves the sections like research, design, development, manufacturing and distribution of textiles, fabrics and clothing.

Textile Industry Image

Up until the revolution of industries, fabrics and clothing were made in the home by individuals for personal use. Sometimes they were also resale on a small scale. The Textile industry was born with the invention of the flying shuttle in 1733, the spinning jenny in 1764, and the power loom in 1784. Then the fabrics and clothing began to be mass produced. When James Watt’s improved steam engine in 1775, Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1792, and Elias Howe’s sewing machine in 1846 all contributed greatly to the success of the textile industry as well.
 
Now a day, the textile industry is a global phenomenon comprised of every business involved in the developing, producing, manufacturing, and distribution of textiles. Now it is also a very complex industry. It starts in agriculture with fibre production, husbandry of sheep and silkworm, mining of metals and minerals. Then these fibres are processed into yarns, fabrics and apparels. This includes, spinning mills, weaving mills, knitting mills, dyeing mills, garments. In addition, companies that sell buttons, zippers, knitting supplies, sewing machines and threads, laces, looms, and drapery hardware are also related to this industry.

Departments of Textile Industry

Now we are going to discuss about the departments of textile industry in brief as follows –
 
Spinning
The conversion of fibre (natural or man-made) into yarn is called spinning. The spinning department has many steps like blowroom, carding, drawing, combing, simplex and ring frame. Blow room is the first step of spinning. Here the cotton bale is turned into uniform lap of particular length by opening, cleaning, blending or mixing. The next step is carding. Carding is called the heart of spinning. The third step is drawing. Here the slivers are blended, doubled, leveled and drafted. The next step is combing. It is a process of straightening and parallelizing of fibres and also the removal of short fibres and impurities. Then the step comes is simplex. Here slivers are attenuated and also given a small amount of twist. Then the slivers are turned into roving. The last step is ring frame. The roving, on bobbins, is placed in the ring frame, where it passes through several sets of rollers running at higher rates of speed and is finally drawn out to yarn.  
 
Fabric Manufacturing
There are different methods of fabric manufacturing. Among them the weaving and the knitting are mostly used. Weaving is the major method of fabric manufacturing. The technique probably became known before spinning. Primitive people may have observed the grasses and twigs in the nests of birds, and thus discovered how they could make clothing for themselves. Spinning developed when people discovered that the raw materials could be improved before they were woven. In the course of time, rude looms were made, which were crudely simple and hand-operated. Now a day different modern looms have been developed but essentially performs the same operation as the simple hand operated loom. Weaving department also has different sections like winding, warping, sizing, looming. Knitting is the second most frequently used method of fabric manufacturing. The popularity of knitting has grown tremendously within recent years because of the increased versatility of techniques, the adaptability of the many new man-made fibres, and the growth of consumer demand. Today the uses of knitted fabrics range from hosiery, underwear, sweaters, slacks, suits and coats.
 
Wet processing
Wet processing is the department where desizing, scouring, bleaching, washing, mercerizing, dyeing etc. are done. Desizing is done to remove the sizing materials. Scouring is done to remove the fats, oil, wax by using alkali. Bleaching is done to remove the natural color from the fibres. Washing is done to clean the textile material, Mercerizing is done to make the fabric brighter than bright and dyeing is done to make the fabric mono uniform colored. Different types of machines like kier boiler, J-box, Jet, Jigger, Pad mangle, Winch dyeing machine etc. are used in wet processing department.
 
Garments Manufacturing
The processing steps and techniques involved in the manufacturing garments for large scale production on industrial basis for business purpose are called garments manufacturing technology. Garments factories are classified into three categories as woven garments factory, knit garments factory and sweater garments factory. The factory which producing garments from woven fabrics is called woven garments factory. The factory producing garments from knit fabrics is called knit garments factory. To produce garments we need sewing machines but the sewing machines are of different types used for different specific types of stitches. Name of some common sewing machines used in the garments manufacturing are mentioned below –
 
  • Lock stitch sewing machine
  • Chain stitch sewing machine
  • Over lock sewing machine
  • Flat lock sewing machine
  • Blind stitch sewing machine
  • Bar Tac sewing machine
  • Button hole sewing machine
  • Button attaching machine
  • Label sewing machine etc.
Though a major part of this textile industry involves in clothing manufacturing, many people are employed designing new fashions and marketing them for production. Some other textile companies produce sheets, blankets, pillowcases, and towels. Importing and exporting fabrics, garments are also a part of the textile industry. Also the clothing designers and manufacturers often have buyers to travel around the world to look for the right cloth to create their fashions. Because of the type of material that is locally produced varies greatly from one country to the next.
 
Lastly we can say that, the textile industries provide us with the above goods while providing a valuable source of income for many people all over the world.

Friday, October 30, 2015

Why to Study about Textile

Introduction
Textile is an important term in our daily lives. So everybody should know something about textile. From the primitive time to present time people used textiles for covering, warmth and even for displaying personal wealth. We are the ultimate consumer of textiles. The automobile industries, homemakers, dressmakers, interior decorators, retail-store customers and even the students who are studying in these subjects should know about textiles.

Textiles

Reasons for studying Textiles
Now I’ll describe the reasons for studying textile as follows –
To know about Textile Fibres
There are different types of textile fibres which are used by the textile industries as raw materials. Some textile fibres were also used by the people in the earlier years of civilization, as well as in the present times. Other fibres have gained varied degree of importance in recent years. Many man-made fibres have also been developed. There are mainly two types of textile fibres and they are the natural and the man-made fibres.
To know about Yarns
Primitive people discovered that a succession of short fibres could be twisted into a continuous yarn. This was probably accomplished slowly and laboriously at first, but the greater strength thus produced. Many uses soon found for articles made from continuous yarns led to the invention of twisting and spinning machines. At the same time long filament strands unwound from silk cocoons, and still later, filaments formed by chemical synthesis were made into yarns. Now yarns are also made by integrating the filament and staple yarns.
To know about the Fabric
A study of textile will show, for example, why certain fabrics are more durable and therefore more serviceable for specific purpose. It will explain why certain fabrics make cool wearing appeal as well as give an impression of coolness when used as decoration. The matter of cleanliness and maintenance must also be estimated before purchasing when that is an important factor.
To know about the quality of Textiles
Complete knowledge of textiles will facilitate an intelligent appraisal of standards and brands of merchandise and will develop the ability to distinguish quality in fabrics and in turn, to appreciate the proper uses for the different qualities. As a result, both the consumer merchant and consumer customer will know how to buy and what to buy and salespeople will know how to render good service to those consumers who have not had the advantage of a formal course in textiles.
To know about the new inventions in the Textile Sector
Great strides have been made in the textile industries, and have markedly influenced our general economic growth. The prosperity and growth of related industries, such as petroleum and chemistry, and dependent industries such as retail apparel stores, have produced broader employment opportunities. New fibre blends have been created to combine many of these qualities into new types of yarns with new trademarks. There are also new names for the fabrics made of these new fibres and yarns. New finishes have been developed to add new and interesting characteristics to fibres, yarns and fabrics.
To know about the Textile Industries
The textile industry is very complex. It begins in agriculture with fibre production of cotton, flax, and other fibrous plants; in husbandry of sheep, other animals, and silk warms; in mining of metals and minerals; in chemical research and production of synthetics. These fibres are processed into yarns and then fabrics. The yarns are made into fabrics for industrial and consumer uses by various means, such as weaving and knitting. These fabrics are converted into finished cloths, which provide particular appearances and performances. These fabrics are made into end use products, including apparel, home furnishings and various industrial applications. These products are then merchandised and sold.
To know about the Career opportunities in this Textile Sector
Textile sector plays an important role in the economic development of a country. So there is a huge opportunity to build up career in this sector. As for example, in a knit composite mill there are many sections such as knitting, dyeing, cutting, garments, finishing etc. So to operate the machines in these sections a lot of labors and helpers are needed. So it produces a lot of employment opportunities for little educated persons. In every section there are some supervisors, executives and managers and an AGM, a DGM and an ED are needed. So it produces lot of employment opportunities for educated persons too.

Lastly we can say that we cannot imagine our daily lives without textiles. So to become a civilized person we should have the knowledge of Textiles.

Wednesday, September 2, 2015

What is Textile Recycling

Definition of Recycling
Textile Recycling
Recycling can be defined as the process of reusing or making new products from the waste materials. It has many benefits. Such as, it reduces fresh raw materials consumption, energy consumption, air and water pollution and so on. By recycling, we can reduce the wastes and also reuse the product that has originally served its purpose.

Definition of Textile Recycling
We put our garments, curtains, pillow covers, bed sheets, towels etc. in our wardrobes or cupboards that we don’t need any more. Some of us pass them on Charity and re-use organizations and some reuse them.

Textile recycling is a system of reusing or reprocessing or remaking the used clothing, rugs, fibrous materials etc. We can also reuse or reprocess carpets, towels, tires, foot wears, sheets, blankets etc. Approximately, 1.5 millions of textiles that we can reuse or recycle are unnecessarily put into the rubbish bins.

Textile Recycling

Textile recyclers make the old clothing and fabrics into new products. The materials are sorted, cleaned and turned into new products. At first textile recyclers pre-short the materials according to composition, sizes, color etc. to separate any re-usable product and then sent for resale. As for example, in Toronto, collection boxes on street corners are operated by charities to collect the clothing and fabrics. Re-usable materials are sent to resale and the rests are to recycle. Now a day, famous retailers like H & M, American Eagle, Marks and Spencer also accept textiles for reuse and recycling.

Importance
The importance of Textile Recycling are as follows –
  • It reduces wastes and also landfill space.
  • It reduces the greenhouse gases as when the textiles are burnt gases are produced.
  • It reduces air and water pollution.
  • It reduces energy consumption.
  • It reduces use of fresh raw materials.
  • It creates economic development.
  • It helps to reduce unemployment problem.
Procedures

The procedures are as follows –
For reusable Textiles
At first the Textiles are carried by trucks to the shorting plants. Then these are shorted by types (Tops, bottoms, T-shirt, denim etc.). These are also shorted by quality and brands. The high qualities are sent to the local market again. Like as in America, these are sent to the North American vintage shops. Then the lower qualities are compressed and bundled. The bundles are arranged in the shipping containers and sent all over the world for resale.

Shorted cloths at market

For unusable Textiles
At first the textiles are shorted according to the origin. They are separated as natural and synthetic fibres.
In case of natural fibres – First these are shorted according to the type of material and color. Color shorting reduces the dyeing cost of the fabrics. Then the textiles are shredded and converted into fibres. The fibres are then made into yarns and the yarns into fabrics. Sometimes some fibres are also used for other purposes like filling pillows.
In case of synthetic fibres – The textiles are shredded and processed into chips. Then the chips are used to produce synthetic filaments or yarns.

References:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_recycling
  • http://www.recyclenow.com/what-to-do-with/clothing-textiles
  • http://atrscorp.com/

Saturday, August 29, 2015

What is Textile

Introduction
Textile is the second basic needs of human being. It has such an important bearing on our daily lives that everyone needs to know something about them. From earliest times, people have used textiles of various types for covering, warmth, personal adornment, and even to display personal wealth. Today textiles are still used for these purposes and everyone is an ultimate consumer. Though we are not the direct purchaser, we use it in our daily life. As for example, the buyers buy the product from the manufacturers, then they display in the shopping mall and then we buy the products to use.

Textile FibreMany industries, such as the auto mobile industry, are important consumers of textiles in various forms. Some other consumers are homemakers, dressmakers, and interior decorators. As well as students who are studying for these and various other occupations and professions in which knowledge of textile is of major importance.

Definition of Textile
Textile is a fabric (Woven or knitted) made from yarn. Though it is referred to woven fabric, it is also applied to fibre, yarn, fabric and any other product made from these. It is also associated with the production of clothing.

Hoodie Sweater
It can also be defined as follows –
  • Any product manufactured by weaving, knitting or felting.
  • Any kind of raw material like fibre or yarn, suitable for weaving.
  • Anything is related to fabrics or producing of fabrics.
  • The fundamental component of ready made garments.
  • A finished piece of cloth used for specific purpose.
  • Any kind of material composed of natural or synthetic fibre.
Basic Textile Materials
The basic Textile materials are as follows:
Fibre
Yarn
Grey Fabric
Finished Fabric
End Product

Fibre
The textile industries use many different types of raw materials. Raw materials begin in agriculture with fibre production of cotton, flax, and other fibrous plants; in husbandry of sheep, other animals, and silkworms; in mining of metals and minerals.
What is textile
Yarn
The fibres are processed into yarns. The yarns are made into fabrics for industrial and consumer uses by various means, such as weaving and knitting.
Grey Fabric
The undyed and unfinished fabric is called grey cloth.
Finished Fabric
Grey fabrics are converted into finished fabrics, which provide particular appearance and performances.
End Product
Finished fabrics are made into end-use products, including apparel, home furnishings, and various industrial applications. These products are then merchandise and sold.

Sources and Types
Textiles are made from many materials. The materials can be classified into four groups – plant, animal, mineral and synthetics.
Plant
The fibres which comes from the plants is called plant fibres. Plant fibres are also called vegetable fibres. The plant fibres are listed below:
Animal
There are several animal fibres, each obtained from different sources, but only two are recognized as major textile fibres. They are wool and silk. Minor hair fibres are listed below:
  • Camel
  • Alpaca
  • Mohair
  • Cashmere
  • Rabbit and
  • Qiviut
Mineral
Asbestos: Asbestos is a natural fibre obtained from varieties of rock. It is a fibrous form of silicate of magnesium and calcium, containing iron, aluminium, and other materials. It is acid proof, rust proof, and flame proof. Consequently it has been used for materials requiring certain of these characteristics.

Synthetics
These fibres are generated by man. We do not get these fibres from nature but are generated from natural (cellulose and protein) and chemical substances.  There are several categories of synthetic fibres: cellulosic, non-cellulosic polymers, protein, rubber, metallic, and mineral.

Uses of Textile
Textiles have varieties of uses as follows –
  • The most common use is as clothing.
  • Also used for containers such as bags and baskets.
  • Household uses include carpeting, upholstery furnishings, bed coverings, pillow coverings, table cloths, mat, towels, blankets etc.
  • Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, nets etc.
  • Transportation uses such as kites, sales, parachutes etc.
  • Technical textiles are used as structures of automobiles, medical textiles are used as gauze, bandages etc., agro-textiles are used for the protection of crops etc.
  • Traditional uses such as sewing, quilting and embroidery.

Thursday, February 26, 2015

List of all Textile Fibres

A natural or synthetic filament which may be spun into yarn that makes fabric such as cotton or nylon is called Textile Fibre. Fabrics are further classified by their composition and can be divided into:
Animal: Derived from and animal source.
Vegetable: Derived from a plant.
Natural polymer: This type of fibre is produced by man from a naturally occurring polymeric substance.
Man-made: The fibre that has been created from a chemical structure.

Textile fibre
Multifilament Yarn
Animal
  • Alpaca
  • Angora – Angora rabbit
  • Camel hair – Bactrian Camel
  • Cashgora – Cashgora goat
  • Cashmere – Cashmere goat
  • Guanaco – Guanaco
  • Horsehair
  • Llama
  • Mohair – Angora goat
  • Silk
  • Vicuna
  • Wool
Vegetable
Man-made
  • Acrylic
  • Aramid
  • Elastane
  • Modacrylic
  • Nylon
  • Polyacrylonitrile
  • Polyamide
  • Polyester
  • Polyethylene
  • Polypropylene
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Polyurethane
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • Vinyl
Natural polymers
  • Acetate
  • CuproTM
  • Elastodiene
  • Metal fibre
  • ModalTM
  • Lyocell
  • Triacetate
  • Viscose
  • TencelTM

Monday, January 26, 2015

What is Lycra?

Definition and Summary of Lycra

The seventh textile fibre to be developed by Du Pont. Lycra or Spandex is a multi-filament bundle joined together to form a mono-filament yarn that stretches and snaps back into place like rubber. It is stronger and more durable than conventional elastic thread. Less weight, gives longer wear, and has from two to three times as much restraining power. As a result, it provides softer, lighter and sheerer girdles with the kind of figure control heretofore confined to heavier, bulkier garments. It also makes possible girdles and brassieres that, with proper temperature controls, can be both machine washed and machine dried with complete safety.
The ground work for the development of Lycra was laid by a Du Pont research team seeking ways to produce a fibre that would have the elastic qualities of rubber but at the same time would be a textile fibre in the truest sense. This pioneer work ultimately led to the discovery of a product known in its experimental stage as fibre K.
In April of 1958, Fibre K was introduced for trade evaluation and during the next year and a half was tested extensively by foundation garment manufacturers. Plans for its commercialization and adoption of the trademark Lycra were announced in October, 1959.
Chemical composition
The fibre forming substance in Lycra is a long-chain synthetic polymer comprised of at least 85% of segmented polyurethane. This means that it is a 100 percent man-made elastomeric and does not contain any natural rubber.
Main characteristics
Sock tops of Lycra have lasting stretch, snap-back and stamina plus resistance to such foes of elastic as laundering, perspiration, and detergents.
It opens new fields in fabric construction and styling not attainable with conventional elastic yarns. It can be used bare or covered. Bare means that it is not wrapped with a covering yarn such as nylon before it is knit into fabric. Natural elastic yarns and other spandex fibres usually are used with covering yarns, primarily because of their relative lack of strength and uniformity as compared with Lycra. Whether it is used with or without a covering yarn depends on the fabric construction and holding power desired.
Apparel uses
At the present time, it is found in products such as girdles, bras, swimsuits, support and surgical stockings, men’s sock tops, and football pants.

Monday, January 19, 2015

Advantages and Limitations of various Synthetic fibres

The properties of a fabric depend primarily on the properties of the fibres from which they are made. Hence familiarity with the characteristic properties of a fibre will aid the consumer in knowing what to expect of different fabrics and what care is required in maintaining them.

Synthetic fibres

Viscose Rayon
Advantages:
-         Viscose rayon is suitable for wide range of fabrics from lightweight luxury types that drape well to heavy, strong, durable types that are stiff and crisp.
-         It can be dyed easily with all the dyes that take on to cellulosic fibres.
-         It blends well with other fibres.
-         It is very absorbent.
-         It can be given a variety of finishes.
-         It can be laundered or dry-cleaned, depending on the dye used or the finish given.
-         It can be bleached with chlorine bleaches but peroxide bleach is preferable.
Limitations:
-         Fibres are weaker than cotton and weaker still when wet.
-         Abrasion resistance is poor.
-         Fabrics wrinkle easily because of the poor resiliency of the fibres.
-         Fabrics have very poor dimensional stability due to progressive shrinkage of the fibres.
-         Rayon is susceptible to mildew.
-         It is damaged more easily than cotton by mineral acids.
-         Fabrics require low ironing temperature.

Polynosic Fibres
Advantages:
-         Fabric possesses better strength than viscose rayon.
-         Dimensional stability of the fabric is good.
-         Abrasion resistance is better than that of viscose rayon.
-         Fabrics may be crisp and firm with good drapability.
-         Fabrics are absorbent.
-         Fabrics are good conductors of heat, hence are good for summer.
-         Their luster is subdued resembling that of silk.
-         Polynosics can be given resin treatment for wrinkle resistance without any loss in strength.
-         Fibres/Fabrics can be dyed and printed like cotton.
-         Fabrics are easy to launder and can also be dry-cleaned.
Limitations:
-         Fabrics are weakened by sunlight.
-         Fibre has poor resiliency.
-         Fabrics require low ironing temperatures.
-         Polynosics are susceptible to mildew.

Acetate
Advantages:
-         Fabrics have a luxurious soft feel and silky appearance.
-         Acetate has excellent draping qualities.
-         Since the fibres are thermoplastic durable surface effects like embossing, schreinering, moireing, cireing can be given to the fabric.
-         It can be dyed with disperse dyes or it can be dope dyed. Dope dyed fabrics have excellent fastness to light, crocking, perspiration, washing and gas-fading.
-         Fabrics are unaffected by mildew or moth.
-         It can be bleached with hydrogen peroxide or sodium perborate at low temperatures.
Limitations:
-         Acetate fabrics have poor absorbency.
-         They are weak when wet.
-         Acetate has poor abrasion resistance.
-         Fabrics build up static electricity.
-         Fibre dissolves in acetone and acetic acid.
-         Fibre weakens on exposure to sunlight.
-         It requires special dyes.

Nylon
Advantages:
-         Nylon is very strong even when wet.
-         It is resilient and elastic.
-         Fabrics are dimensionally stable.
-         It is unaffected by alkalis.
-         It has excellent abrasion resistance.
-         Fabrics are unaffected by mildew and moths.
-         Fabrics can be heat-set to retain pleats.
-         It resists water-borne stains.
-         It washes easily and dries quickly.
-         The fabric may be either laundered or dry-cleaned and can be bleached or treated with fluorescent brighteners.
-         Fabrics need little or no ironing.
Limitations:
-         Fabrics are damaged by sunlight.
-         Fabrics build up static electricity.
-         Fabrics absorb oil and oily soils. Oil stains are difficult to remove.
-         Nylon melts in fire.
-         Fabrics made from staple fibre tend to pill. This mars the surface appearance.
-         White nylon tends to pick up dyes and soils in laundering.
-         Low ironing temperature is required.

Polyester
Advantages:
-         Polyester fabrics are very strong.
-         Fabrics are wrinkle resistance.
-         Fabrics have good dimensional stability.
-         Polyester has high abrasion resistance.
-         It can be texturized.
-         Fabric can be heat-set to retain pleats or creases.
-         Fabrics have excellent wash and wear characteristics. They show smooth drying properties.
-         Polyester can be laundered or dry-cleaned.
-         It can be bleached.
-         It can be dyed with disperse dyes.
-         Fabrics are resistant to moth and mildew.
-         Polyester blends well with other fibres to increase the wrinkle resistance, of the other fibre and its wash-and-wear properties.
Limitations:
-         Polyester staple fibre fabrics tend to pill.
-         They build up static charge.
-         They have low absorbency.
-         They have poor affinity for dyes.
-         They have an affinity for oily soil and oil borne stains.
-         Polyester melts in fire.
-         Polyester can withstand moderate ironing temperatures.

Acrylic/Modacrylic
Advantages:
-         Fabrics are light in weight and have a pleasant feel.
-         Have good bulking properties.
-         Can be heat-set for dimensional stability and for pleat retention.
-         Fabrics have good wrinkle resistance.
-         Show warmth characteristics similar to that of wool.
-         Resistant to acids, alkalis and bleaches.
-         Apparel can be easily laundered or dry-cleaned.
-         Have good resistance to weathering and microbial attack.
Limitations:
-         Fabrics have low absorbency.
-         Fabrics build up static electricity.
-         Fabrics may pill depending on yarn construction.
-         They are prone to retaining oil stains.
-         Melt and decompose in fire.
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