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Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Thread Sizes: Ticket Number

Identification of thread size, called ticket number, is undergoing a transition. Different kinds of yarns had different numbering designations. On January 1, 1980, the Thread Institute adopted a standardized ticket numbering system based on the Tex system of numbering yarn. The system is to be used on a voluntary basis by its member manufacturers, converters and jobbers. Adoption by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is accepted.

Pending full acquaintance and acceptance by industry and consumers, both the past systems and the Tex system will be used. It is therefore necessary to describe the several ticket number systems for appropriate application.

The size of spun thread had always been expressed in terms of its diameter: the higher the number, the finer the thread. At one time, thread had been made only from three ply spun yarns. Therefore, a spun yarn thread of 50 three ply (50/3) had a ticket number of 50, a thread of 60 three ply (60/3) had a ticket number of 60, and so forth. Subsequently, the number of plies in sewing thread was extended to two, three, four, and six ply. A ticket number of 50 could therefore indicate a 50 two ply (50/2), a 50 three ply (50/3), a 50 four ply (50/4), or a 50 six ply (50/6); but the thickness of the thread in each case was the same, while each ply was thinner. The greater number of ply yarns implied greater thread strength.

The sizes of mercerized cotton sewing thread were identified by letter as well as number. The range was from F (coarsest) to A (medium), and then from 0 to 0000 (finest).

Sewing thread is also made of filament fibre. The denier designation had been used, and the lower the number, the finer the thread. The size of filament sewing thread had been identified by denier, except that the last digit was omitted. For example, a 180 denier thread had a ticket number 18.

The Tex system is intended to give orderliness by providing one ticket numbering system based upon the metric system which is expected to become universally adopted. Since Tex is the weight in grams of a 1000-meter length and is a direct numbering system, the greater the weight, the thicker the thread and therefore higher the number. Ticket numbers are based on actual Tex size of the thread in the griege stage, i.e. twisted, braided, or extruded before any dyeing, special processing, or finishing. The purpose of the stipulation is intended to obviate the alteration of the threads apparent size by any finishes. The following is the system adopted:

Ticket Number

One important caution should be noted when using the Tex ticket numbers. When selecting proper thread size, threads of the same fibre and type must be compared. Since the Tex ticket numbering system is based on weight and since different kinds of fibres or types have different weights, the same Tex number of threads of different fibres or types will not necessarily be of the same thickness and may therefore not be interchangeable.

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Formulas for the Determination of yarn Count

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Formulas for the Determination of Yarn Count

The system by which we determine the yarn number is called count. Count is the number of yarn denoting the sophistication or obesity of yarn. So by linear density or the yarn count, we can know how fine or course the yarn is. It indicates the mass per unit length or length per unit mass of yarn. 

Yarn Count
 
          The length of the sample X Weight unit
-         Indirect count system = ………………………………………………

           The weight of the sample X Length unit
 
From the above formula, the count in different indirect systems is as follows –
      Sample yarn length (yds) X 1 lb
1.     English cotton count (Ne) = ………………………………………………
Sample yarn weight (lb) X 840 yds
                                                                  Sample yarn length (m) X 1 kg
2.     Metric count (Nm) = ………………………………………………
   Sample yarn weight (kg) X 1000 m
                                       Sample length (m) X 0.5 kg
3.     French or Continental count (Nf) = …………………………………………
       Sample weight (kg) X 1000 m
                                                                   Sample length (yds) X 1 lb
4.     Worsted count (w) = ………………………………………………
      Sample weight (lb) X Weight unit

                       Sample yarn weight X length unit
-         Direct count system = ……………………………………………
                      Sample yarn length X Weight unit
 
From the above formula, the count in different direct systems is as follows –
         Sample yarn weight (gm) X 1000 m
1.     Tex count = ……………………………………………………
     Sample yarn length (m) X 1 gm
                                                             Sample weight (gm) X 9000 m
2.     Denier count = ………………………………………………
     Sample length (m) X 1 gm
                                                                                 Sample weight (lb) X 14400 yds
3.     Linen/Hemp/Jute count = …………………………………………………
       Sample length (yds) X 1 lb

     Conversion of count from one count to another

1.     Denier to cotton:
English cotton count = 5315/Yarn count in denier system
2.     Denier to Tex:
Tex count = Count in denier system/9
3.     English to Tex:
Tex count = 590.5/English count
4.     English to denier:
Denier count = 5315/English count
5.     Cotton to metric:
Metric count = English cotton count X 1693
6.     Tex to denier:
Denier = Tex X 9

     Resultant count of yarn (For same count of yarn)

1.     Resultant count of indirect system = Count of single yarn/No. of doubling or ply
2.     Resultant count of direct system = Count of single yarn X No. of doubling or ply

     Resultant count of yarn (For different count of yarn)

1.     Resultant count of indirect system = 1/Sum of the weight of folded yarn’s length unit
2.     Resultant count of direct system = Sum of the weight of folded yarn’s length unit

Mathematical problems and solution of yarn count

1.     Find out the cotton count if weight of 8400 yds yarn is 1 lb.
Solution:
We know,
      Length (yds)                 1 lb
            English cotton count =…………………….. X …………………
                                                                 840 (yds)                      Weight (lb)
                                                            8400 yds                            1 lb
                                                   = ……………………… X …………………… = 10 S (ANS).
                                                            840 yds                              1 lb
 
2.     If 120 yds cotton yarn having 25 grain weight then what will be the count?
Solution:
                                                      Yarn length (yds)                    1 lb      
English cotton count = ……………………………. X ……………………….
                                                          840 yds                               Yarn weight (lb)
                                        = 120/840 X 1/(25/7000) = 120/840 X 7000/25
                                        = 40S (ANS).
 
3.     If 1000m Nylon yarn having 1.67gm weight then what will be the Denier?
Solution:
We know,
                                        Yarn wt. (lb)                           14400 yds
            Jute count = ……………………….. X ………………………
                                               1 lb                                   Yarn length (yds)
                                          3/16                    14400 yds
                                = ……………… X ………………….
                                          1 lb                       100 yds
                                = 3/16 X 14400/100 = 27 lb/Spindle (ANS).
 
4.     Find out the metric count if weight of the 400m yarn is 40gm.
Solution:
We know,
                                               Length (m)                     1 kg   
            Metric count = …………………….. X …………………
                                                1000 m                          Weight (m)
                                    = 400m/1000m X 1kg/(4kg/1000) = 10S (ANS).
 
5.     Find out the worsted count if the weight of 80 yds is 50 grain.
Solution:
We know that,
                                                Length (yds)                  1 lb
            Worsted count = ……………………… X …………………
                                                   560 yds                          Weight (lb)
                                                    80 yds                              1 lb
                                         = …………………… X …………………….
                                                   560 yds                            50/7000 lb
                                        = 20S (ANS).
 
6.     A trading corporation provides you a 24.3 Ne yarn, Find out the Tex and denier of that yarn.
Solution:
Given,
            Wk = 1 lb = 453.6 gm
            Wr = 1 gm
            Ik = 840 yds = 840 X 0.9144 m
            Ir = 1000 m
We know,
                        1                     Wk/Wr
            Nr = ………… X ………………
                        Nk                     Ik/Ir
                                        1                                     453.6/1
Tex = ……………. X …………………………………..
                        24.3                         (840 X 0.9144)/1000
       = 24.3 Tex (ANS).
Again,
            We know denier = 9 X Tex
                                            = 9 X 24.3 Tex = 218.7 denier (ANS).

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Definition and types of yarn count

Definition of count | Types of count

Yarn count: The yarn count is a numerical expression which defines its fineness or coarseness. It also expresses weather the yarn is thick or thin. A definition is given by the textile institute – “Count is a number which indicates the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn.”
Types of yarn count:
     a)     Indirect system- English, Metric, Worsted.
     b)    Direct system- Tex, Denier, Lbs/Spindle.
Indirect count: The count of yarn expresses the number of length units in one weight unit. Thus higher the count, finer the yarn. The system is generally used for cotton, worsted, linen (wet spun) etc.                                
                                      w x L
Indirect count: N= ………………
                                      W X l
Where, W = The weight of the sample.
             w = The unit weight of the system.
             L = The length of the sample.
             l = The unit length of the sample.
Direct count: The count of yarn expresses the no. of weight units in one length unit. Thus higher the count, coarser the yarn. The system is generally used for synthetic fibre, jute, silk etc.
                                W X l
Direct count: N = …………
                                w X L
Where,
             N = The yarn number or, count.
              W = The weight of the sample.
               w = The unit weight of the sample.
                L = The length of the sample.
               l = The unit length of the sample.
In Details:
English system: It is defined as the number of hanks 840 yds per pound is called yarn count.                                                 
                                          Length (yds)            1 pound
English cotton count, N =………………  X …………………
                                           840 yds                    Weight (Pound)
Metric system: It is defined as the number of hank (1000m) per kg.                                     
                           Length (m)                               1 kg
Metric count =…………………   X  …………………….
                             1000m                               Weight (kg)
Worsted system: It is defined as the number of hanks (540yds) per pound.                                 
                                   Length (yds)            1 Pound   
Worsted count =……………………  X  …………………
                                  560 (yds)               Weight (Pound)
Tex system or, Lea count: It is defined as the weight in grams of 1000m is called tex count.                    

                     Weight (gm)          1000m
Tex count =………………  X  ……………
                     1 gm                      Length (m)
Denier: The number or, count in the denier system is the weight in grams of 9000m.                        
                         Weight (gm)            9000m
Denier count =………………  X  ………….
                         1 gm                        Length
Pounds per spindle (Jute system): Count in the pound per spindle system is the weight in pounds of 14400 yards of yarn.  
                                Weight (Pound)        14400 (yds)
Pound per spindle =……………….  X  …………….....
                                  1 Pound                     Length (yds)

Friday, December 6, 2013

Basic conversions of count

Basic conversions of count---

Denier = 9 X Tex
Ne X Denier = 0.5315
Metric X Tex = 1000
Tex X Ne = 590.5
Ne = Metric X 0.5905
Metric X denier = 9000
                             Lb
Tex = 34.45 X.......................
                          Spindle
1 yd = 0.9144 m
1 m = 1.0936 yard
1 m = 39.37 inch
1 cm = 0.3937 inch
1 gm = 0.353 oz (ounce)
1 oz = 28.350 gm
1 pound = 453.6 gm
1 kg = 2.204 pound
1 m/kg = 0.4961 yd/lb
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 m2 = 1.196 yd2
1 yd2 = 0.8361 m2
1 gm/m2 = 0.0295 oz/yd2
1 oz/yd2 = 33.91 gm/m2
1 pound = 0.4536 kg
1 yd/lb = 2.0159 m/kg