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Friday, November 13, 2015

General Properties of Textile Fibre

The fibres which are used for the production of yarn and fabric are called textile fibres. There may be different types of fibres look like textile fibres but all the fibres are not textile fibres. To be a textile fibre it should have some of the essential characteristics like minimum length to insert twist, strength, fineness, cohesiveness, rigidity or stiffness, elongation and elasticity etc. Different types of textile fibres are used in the textile industry. Some of them we get from natural sources and some of them are man-made.

All the General Properties of Textile Fibre

Considering the general properties of textile fibre we can mainly divide into four fairly loose properties, Physical, Mechanical, Chemical and Structural properties.

Physical Properties
A textile fibre should have some of the following physical properties –
  • Length
  • Fineness
  • Crimp
  • Maturity
  • Lusture
  • Softness
  • Resiliency
  • Work of rupture
  • Density
  • Appearance
  • Flexibility
  • Toughness
  • Elongation
  • Friction
  • Tenacity
  • Moisture regain and Moisture content
  • Burning behavior
  • Pilling behavior
Mechanical Properties
A textile fibre should have some of the following mechanical properties –
  • Strength
  • Elasticity
  • Extensibility
  • Rigidity
  • Static Electrification
  • Thermal conductivity
Chemical Properties
A textile fibre should have some of the following chemical properties –
  • Action with acid
  • Action with alkali
  • Action with bleaching
  • Action with organic solvent
  • Sunlight preventive power
  • Mildew preventive power
  • Insects preventive power
  • Heat preventive power
Structural Properties
A textile fibre should have some of the following structural properties –
  • Fine structure and Appearance
  • Micro structure
                               I.            X-Sectional view
                             II.            Longitudinal view

So we can say that, if we want to judge a fibre as a textile fibre, it should have some of the above properties.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Difference between Natural and Synthetic Fibre

There are mainly two types of fibre. One is natural which we get from nature and another is synthetic or man-made fibre which is developed by man. There are many differences between natural and man-made fibres.

Natural and Synthetic Fibre

The differences are as follows:
Natural Fibre
Synthetic Fibre
We get these fibres from natural farming, animal husbandry and insects.
These fibres are generated by man. We do not get these fibres from nature but are generated from natural (cellulose and protein) and chemical substances.  
Fibre length is given by nature that is, fixed.
Fibre length is not fixed and is controlled by man.
We get fibres as staple or filament (silk).
Generally we get fibres as filament but we can also get as staple or cut-length.
Fineness varies from one fibre to another fibre.
Fineness depends on the manufacturers.
Less strength and durability.
More strength and durability.
Strength increases in wet condition.
Strength increases in dry condition.
Some short fibres remain with long fibres.
There is no short fibre.
No need of spinneret.
Need of spinneret.
No need to mix chemicals to produce fibre or yarn.
Need to mix chemicals to produce filament or staple.
Apparels produced from natural fibres are comfortable.
Apparels produced from man-made fibres are less comfortable
More demandable in producing apparels.
More demandable in producing other textile end products rather than apparels.
Bears dust and trash.
Do not bear any dust or trash.
Bears crimp naturally.
We have to give crimp manually.
Generally fibres are hydrophilic.
Generally fibres are hydrophobic.
In most cases, scouring and bleaching is needed.
No need of scouring and bleaching but sometimes cleaning is needed.
Easy to dye.
Difficult to dye.
It is expensive.
It is cheaper.
Comparatively have less life time.
Comparatively have more life time.
Uses of natural fibre are limited.
Uses of man-made fibre are not limited.
We cannot change the structure.
We can change the structure.

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Properties of Orlon Acrylic Fabric

The properties of fabrics made of Orlon depend on the type of fibre used as well as how the material is woven, knitted, or finished. The several types of Orlon provide for flexibility in application due to differences in their properties. Therefore, fabric and garment performance should be evaluated in terms of these particular characteristics as well as general properties common to all Orlon acrylic fibres.

Acrylic Fabric

This fibre is of moderate strength, but it is the weakest of the acrylic fibres. Compared with the natural fibres, it is weaker than all with the exception of wool. Since it is used primarily as a replacement for wool, its greater strength is an advantage. The abrasion resistance of this fibre is good and compares favorably with that of wool.
Like the other Acrylics, Orlon has little stretch. The low stretchability makes it useful for knitted wear, since it is not likely to stretch unduly. Most of the stretch that does exit is due to the mechanical crimp put into the fibre. The additional random-spiral crimp of some types of Orlon provides good extensibility without straining the fibre, thus providing freedom of movement without developing sag.
It has very good resilience and therefore will not wrinkle easily. Fabrics of Orlon staple are not as lively in springing out from a creased position as polyester or wool, but they are still good in this respect. High resilience makes Orlon desirable for men’s slacks and suits as well as for women’s dresses.
The drapability of this fibre varies with the type of fibre. Generally speaking, it provides satisfactory draping qualities.
Heat conductivity
Like all Acrylics, it does not conduct heat rapidly; therefore, fabrics of this fibre can be warm. The fibre has a dog-bone cross section, which provides overlapping and bulk (with little weight). As a result, fabrics of Orlon staple have about 20 percent greater insulating power per ounce (28 g) of fibre than wool fabrics. Since an ounce of this fabric is thicker than an ounce of wool fabric, it is possible to obtain an Orlon fabric that, while being as thick and as warm as wool, is about 20 percent lighter in weight. The warmth of the yarns can be increased by bulking through the use of special types of Orlon and by blending with the high-shrinkage type Orlon.
Like other Acrylics, it has low absorbency. Nevertheless, fabrics made of this staple will take on quite a bit of water on account of the staple’s absorbency: the tendency for water droplets to cling to the surface of the individual fibres. Since these water droplets get into the air spaces between the fibres and evaporate slowly, fabrics of Orlon spun yarn dry slowly, although not as slowly as wool fabrics.
Cleanliness and Washability
These fabrics do not soil or stain easily, and washing or dry cleaning quickly renews their freshness. A mild detergent should, however, be used in laundering since strong detergents will damage them. If desired, any ordinary cleaning fluid and household beach may be safely used.
Effect of bleaches
Fabrics of this yarn may be safely bleached with any of the household bleaches.
The discussion regarding the various types of Orlon fibre shows that some will shrink in processing and that this characteristic is utilized in obtaining desired effects, such as high-bulk yarns and pile fabrics. However, once the finished product reaches the consumer, it may be expected to have excellent dimensional stability since the Orlon fibre will have practically no further shrinkage.
Effect of Heat
This fibre gets tacky at 455o F which is slightly above that of Nylon. At higher temperatures, it will melt.
Fabrics from this fibre should be ironed with a moderately warm iron; in fact, they may be ironed while dry. Old creases may be removed, and new ones added. Since fabrics of this yarn may be heat set, it is often unnecessary to press them, but some ironing may be desired to smooth the cloth.
Effect of light
It has resistance to light. Its extreme resistance to such degradation makes it especially useful for fabrics that will be exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time.
Resistance to mildew
Mildew may form on the surface, but it will have no effect on fabric of this yarn. It may be easily wiped off.
Resistance to Insects
It is unaffected by moths or their larvae or by carpet beetles.
Reaction to alkalies
It has fair to good resistance to weak alkalies and to strong alkalies at room temperature.
Reaction to acids
It has well to excellent resistance to strong mineral acids as well as organic acids.
Affinity to Dyes
Some types of Orlon fibres are specific to acid dyes and some to basic dyes, which can provide interesting cross-dyed effects. Other types of Orlon can be dyed in a wide range of colors and hues with cationic, disperse, napthol, and selected vat dyes. The colors have satisfactory fastness to washing and light.
Resistance to Perspiration
All indications are that fabrics of this yarn are not readily deteriorated by perspiration, but the color may be affected.

Friday, April 3, 2015

Properties of Jute fibre


Jute is a natural cellulosic fibre. It is the golden fibre of Bangladesh. It’s important properties are discussed below:

The reeds of Jute fibre vary from 3 to 14 feet long, depending on the grade, and they show taper from root to end. Thick reeds contain coarse fibre and thin reeds contain finer fibre. It constitutes with ultimate fibres of average length of 2.5mm.

It is a coarse fibre. Its diameter varies from 6 to 20 microns.

FIbres are not so strong when compared with some other bast fibres but have good tensile strength. Fibres are naturally hard and brittle and break off with abrasion. Resistance to mechanical wear is low and not durable especially on exposure in moisture reduces its strength. Its extension at break is 2%.

The best quality fibres are pale white or silvery grey, common qualities are brownish and greenish are inferior, roots are usually darker without any luster. Better quality fibres shows matt and pitted surface with very poor strength.

Better quality fibres have fairly high luster but inferior quality fibres shows matt and pitted surface with very poor strength.

Base portion of the Jute stems is more rigid and has a stronger supporting bark than the rest of the stem. This is due to longer exposure of this part to the action of the sunlight and water. During grade shorting, the root portion are removed by cutting and baled separately known as bale cutting.

Cleanliness of fibre is an essential factor for high grade. Adhering portions of bark, specks sticks etc. are undesirable which affects grading according to their degree of presence.

Effect of chemicals
  • Water: Jute is a hygroscopic fibre i.e. it takes in or gives out moisture to its surrounding atmosphere. Under standard testing atmosphere, moisture content value is 12.8% and moisture regain value of this fibre is 14.6%.
  • Acid: This fibre is damaged by the action of strong acid hence wet processing on Jute fibre is not done in acid medium.
  • Alkali: It is safe in alkali medium; hence wet treatment is done on alkali medium.
Effect of biological agents and light
It is attacked and damaged by the action of micro-biological agents like bacteria, fungus, moths, insects etc. in worm damp condition. Yellowing of the fibre is observed due to the effect of sunlight.

Chemical composite
Chemical composite of Jute fibre are as follows:
Cellulose: 65.2%
Hemi cellulose: 22.2%
Lignin: 10.8%
Water: 1.5%
Fats and Wax: 0.3%

End use
Jute is used for making yarn, twine, rope, sacking, cloth, hessian cloth, carpet backing cloth, carpet, mat, wall cloth, shopping bag, and as packing materials.

Saturday, March 21, 2015

Properties of Acrylic fibre

Acrylic fibre is the most popular among the synthetic fibres. It contains about 85% acrylonitrile units. It is generated from hydrogen, cyanide, acetylene and petroleum.

Acrylic fibre

The main properties of acrylic fibres may be described as follows:

The length of the acrylic fibre can be controlled. That means, it may be in filament or staple form.

Fineness of this fibre is also controllable. The filament yarns are made 75 to 200 denier ranges while staple fibres are made 2 and 3 denier cut into 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” length.

Strength and Extension
It is fairly strong fibre. Its tenacity is 5 gm per denier in dry state and 4.8 gm per denier in wet state. Extension at break is 15%. Good recovery from deformation.

It has an elastic recovery of 85% after 4% extension when the load is extremely released.

Cross-sectional shape
Normally round but cross-section of this fibre could be varied.

It is about 30% bulkier than wool. Regarding insulating warmth, it has about 20% greater insulating power than wool.

Effects of chemical
  • Acid: It has good resistance to mineral acid.
  • Alkali: The resistance to weak alkali is fairly good but hot strong alkali damages this fibre.
  • Solvent: It has excellent resistance to common solvents, oils, greases, and natural salts.
  • Water: moisture regain of this fibre varies from 1.5% to 3%. Easy to wash and quick drying.
Effect of heat and sunlight
This fiber has very good thermal stability. Safe ironing temperature is at 1600C. At 230 – 2350C acrylic sticks with the iron i.e. melting occurs. High temperature may sometime causes yellowing of this fibre.

Effect of Biological agents
This fibre is unaffected by mildew, moulds, larves and insects.

End use
100% acrylic is used mainly in sweater, jersey, knit outer wear fabric and blankets. It is used as a blend component with cotton, viscose, wool etc. It has good warmth and recovery property. It is also used for making carpet due to good resiliency property.

Friday, March 6, 2015

Characteristics, Produced Fabrics and End Usages of Manufactured fibres

There are twelve major groups of manufactured fibres, eight of which are found in considerable abundance in fashion apparel, wearable accessories, and home furnishings. Each has specific characteristics that are unique and are wearable under trade names that belong to their producers. For example, Zafran is Nylon that is produced by BASF Corporation, Solara is an acrylic product of Monsanto, and Estron is acetate owned by Eastman Chemical products.

Polyester fibre

The textiles that are achieved with these manufactured fibres come in a wide range of textures, appearances, and feels. They are used to produce fabrics that bear the same names as those produced with natural fibres such as batiste, which is synonymous with cotton; flannel, generally associated with wool; satin, often a silk fabric; shantung, another silk favorite; and crash, a heavyweight linen product. The manner in which they are converted from their fibre state to yarn and then to fabric, dictates the types of fabrics that will eventually be used for wearable items and home furnishings.
Now discussing the eight major generic groups of fashion-oriented manufactured fibres, their characteristics, the types of fabrics they are used to produce, and their apparel and home furnishings uses as follows:

Luxurious feel and appearance, wide range of colors and lusters, excellent drapability and softness, relatively fast drying.
Brocade, crepe, double knit, faille, knitted jersey, lace, satin, taffeta, tricot.
Wearable uses
Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, lingerie, linings, shirts, slacks, sportswear.
Home products
Draperies, upholstery.

Soft and warm, wool-like, lightweight, retains shape, resilient, quick-drying, moth-resistant, resistant to sunlight, oil, and chemicals.
Fleece and pile fabrics, face fabrics in bonded materials, simulated furs, jerseys.
Wearable Uses
Dresses, infant wear, knitted garments, skirts, ski wear, socks, sportswear, sweaters, work clothes.
Home products
Blankets, carpets, draperies, upholstery.

Soft, resilient, abrasion and flame resistant, quick-drying, resists acids and alkalis, retains shape.
Fleece fabrics, knit-pile fabric backings, non-woven fabrics.
Wearable uses
Deep pile coats, trims, linings, simulate furs, wigs, and hairpieces.
Home products
Blankets, carpets, flame-resistant, draperies and curtains, rugs.

Exceptionally strong, supple, abrasion-resistant, lustrous, easy to wash, resists damage from oil and many chemicals, resilient, low in moisture absorbency.
Knitted and woven fabrics.
Wearable uses
Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, hosiery, lingerie and innerwear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, suits, windbreakers.
Home products
Bedspreads, carpets, draperies, curtains, upholstery.

Unique wicking properties that make it very comfortable; abrasion-resistant, quick drying; resistant to deterioration from chemicals, mildew, perspiration, rot, and weather; sensitive to heat; soil resistant; strong; very lightweight; excellent colorfastness.
Knitted and woven fabrics.
Wearable uses
Pantyhose, underwear, sports shirts, sweaters.
Home products
Carpet, carpet backing, slipcover, upholstery.

Strong, resistant to stretching and shrinkage, resistant to moist chemicals, quick-drying, crisp and resilient when wet or dry, wrinkle and abrasion resistant retains heat-set pleats, and crease, easy to wash.
A variety of knitted and woven fabrics.
Wearable uses
Blouses, shirts, children’s wear, dresses, half hose, ties, lingerie, underwear, permanent press garments, slacks, suits.
Home products
Carpets, curtains, draperies, bedding.

Highly absorbent, soft and comfortable, easy to dye, versatile, good drapability.
Knits, pile fabrics, woven fabrics that simulate flax.
Wearable uses
Blouses, coats, dresses, jackets, lingerie, linings, millinery, rainwear, slacks, shirts, suits, ties.
Home products
Bedspreads, blankets, carpets, draperies, sheets, slipcovers, tablecloths, upholstery.

Can be stretched 500 percent without breaking, lightweight.
Elasticized woven and knitted fabrics.
Wearable uses
Athletic apparel, bathing suits, foundation garments.
Home products