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Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Manufacturing Flowchart of Woolen Yarn

The simple term “wool”, according to government standards, must always mean new wool that has not been made up in any form of wool product. New wool comes directly from a fleece. It has never been previously spun, woven, felted, or worn.

Woolen Yarn

The term “virgin wool” is now used by the textile industry to designate new wool from a sheep’s fleece, but the term is too all-inclusive to serve as a criterion of quality. Although the term testifies to the fact that virgin wool does not contain recycled wool fibres, it can be used to identify the less desirable fibres of a fleece as well as especially fine quality of wool. Virgin wool may also include pulled or dead wool, which may be of definitely inferior stock. It is important to remember that a high grade of recycled wool makes a more serviceable fabric than one having a low grade of new wool.

Manufacturing Flowchart of Woolen Yarn
Sorting and Grading
Gilling and Combing

Fleeces vary from 6 to 18 lbs in weight, average about 8 lbs each. In Australia, the fleece is separated at the time of shearing according to its quality. Superior wool comes from the sides and shoulders, where it grows longer, finer, and softer, and is treated as one fleece; wool from the head, chest, belly, and shanks is treated as a second fleece. Domestic wool reaches the mill in loosely packed bags; imported wool comes in tightly compressed bales. Each fleece contains different grades. The raw stock must be carefully graded and segregated according to length, diameter, and quality of the fibre.
Sorting and grading
Wool sorting is done by skilled workers who are expert in distinguishing qualities by touch and sight. As many as twenty separate grades of wool may be obtained from one fleece if the sorting is especially rigid. Each grade is determined by type, length, fineness, elasticity, and strength.
Recycled wool fibres are obtained by separately by reducing the unused and used materials to a fibrous mass by a picking and shredding process called garneting.
The next step in preparing raw wool for manufacturing is through washing in an alkaline solution; this process is known as scouring.
Wool is not allowed to become absolutely dry. Usually, about 12 to 16 percent of the moisture is left in the wool to condition it for subsequent handling.
As wool is unmanageable after scouring, the fibre is usually treated with various oils, including animal, vegetable and mineral.
If the wool is to be dyed in the raw stock, it is dyed at this stage.
Wool of different grades may be blended or mixed together at this point. It is not uncommon for tag locks and inferior grades of wool to be mixed with the better grades.
In the manufacture of woolen yarns, the essential purpose of carding is to disentangle the fibres by passing the wool fibres between rollers covered with thousands of fine wire teeth. Incidentally, this action also removes some dirt and foreign matter from the fibres.
Gilling and Combing
The carded wool, which is to be made into worsted yarn, is put through gilling and combing operations. The gilling process removes the shorter staple and straightness the fibres.
Drawing is an individual operation which doubles and redoubles slivers of wool fibres. The process draws, drafts, twists, and winds the stock, making the slivers more compact and thinning them into slubbers. Drawing is done only to worsted yarns.
This is the final stage before spinning. Roving is actually a light twisting operation to hold the thin slubbers intact.
In the spinning operation, the wool roving is drawn out and twisted into yarn. Woolen yarns are chiefly spun on the mule spinning machine. Worsted yarns are spun on any kind of spinning machine – mule, ring, cap, or flyer. The two principle systems of spinning worsted yarns are the English system and French system.

Friday, September 11, 2015

Flowchart of Silk Production

Silk is the very fine strand of fibre that is a solidified protein secretion produced by certain caterpillars to encase themselves in the form of cocoons. In spite of its high cost, it has been one of the most popular fabrics because of its unique characteristics. Soft, supple, strong and lighter in weight than any other natural fibre, it is prized for its lightness with warmth, sheerness with strength, and delicacy with resiliency. Actually, the whole commercial silk industry is based on one insect which is known as “silk worm”. When it wants to change in chrysalis, then a moth, the silk is made by it. It spins the silk filaments around itself in the form of a cocoon, inside which it can stay down in comfort.

Golden Silk

Flowchart of silk production is as follows –

Cultivation of Silkworms
Spinning the cocoon
Sorting Cocoons
Softening the Sericin
Reeling the filament

Cultivation of Silkworms
The silk worm is the caterpillar of a small half moths belonging to “bombyx” which lives only on leaves of mulberry tree. The silk worm spent their entire life in eating these leaves.
Eggs of silk worm are warm up for hatching in winter. It is done by spreading the eggs over the trays in the hatching shed and chopped leaves of mulberry trees are spread on the perforated paper. For eating the leaves, the worm climbs through the holes.
After 35 days of hatching worm is 10000 times as heavy as it was born and it has become greenish white cater pillar. Now it is ready to start spinning, silk worm built its cocoon to settle down in it.
Spinning the cocoon
The liquid silk comes from two glands called spinneret in the silkworm head, as the liquid comes out it is hardened into very fine filaments which are coated by a gummy substance called sericin which comes from other two glands nearly.
Sorting Cocoons
The cocoons are sorted according to color, size, shape, and texture, as all these affect the final quality of the silk.
Softening the Sericin
The cocoons are put through a series of hot and cold immersions, as the sericin must be softened to permit the unwinding the filament as one continuous filament.
Reeling the filament
The process of unwinding the filament from cocoon is called reeling.

Production Flowchart of Flax Fibre

Basically the flax fibre composed of cellulose. Linen yarn is made from fibres removed from the stem of the slender flax plant. These fibres, held together under the stem’s bark principally by a gummy substance, form the body of the flax plant. The fibre obtained from the stem of the flax plant was probably the first textile fibre to be used.

Flax Fibre

Production flow of flax fibre is as follows –

Breaking and Scutching

In three months, the plants become straight, slender stalks from 2 to 4 feet in height, with tapering leaves and small blue, purple or white flowers. The plant with the blue flowers yields the finer fibre the others produce a coarser but strong fibre.
When the plant reaches to height of 3`-4` as consider full growth the plant is pulled up & cut down.
Removal of leaves and seeds by a series of upright forks.
It involves the decomposition of the woody matter enclosing the cellulose fibers.
Breaking and Scutching
When the decomposed woody tissue is dry, it is crushed by being passed through fluted iron rollers. Scutching process separates unwanted woody matter from fibers.
This process is like the combing process of cotton fibers. The coarse bundles of fibers are separated from finer bundles and the fibers are also arranged parallel to one another the longer fine fibers.

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

Working Flowchart of Knit Dyeing

The main object of dyeing process is to give woven or knitted fabric its intended color, crucial to its ultimate use. The process can be carried out at different stages of fibre processing, i.e. in different forms: staple, yarn, fabric (rope or open-width), and piece. It is done in a special type of solution containing dyes and other required chemicals. As a result of dyeing, dye molecules make uncut chemical bond with fibre molecules.

Winch Dyeing Machine
The Process Flowchart of Knit dyeing is as follows:
Tank filling with water
Fabric loading
Addition of Anti-creasing + Sequestering agent (600 c, inject)
Detergent (inject)
Soda + Caustic (dosing 10')
H2O2 (700c, inject)
Temperature rise (1100c for 60 minutes)
Temperature is decreased for sample check
Hot wash
P.K.K (980c for 10 minutes)
Rinse & Drain
Acid (550c for 10 minutes, PH check-4.5)
Enzyme (600c for 60 minutes and then sample checked)
Rinse & Drain
Tank again filled with water
Temperature raised to 600c and PH checked 5.5)
Leveling agent (inject, run time 5min)
Salt 1/3 (run time 10 minutes)
Dye (dosing, 600c for 30 minutes)
Salt 2/3 (run time 15 minutes)
Steam down (600c, sample check)
Soda (dosing, 600c for 60 minutes)
Hot wash (900c for 10 minutes)
Rinse (3 times)
Acid (400c for 10 minutes, sample check)
Rinse (1 time)
Softener (450c for 10 minutes, sample check)
Cold wash
Unload fabric

Sunday, August 30, 2015

Process Flowchart of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

Effluent can be defined as the excess chemical liquor which is discharged after using original operation.
Effluent is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as "wastewater - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters". The Compact Oxford English Dictionary defines effluent as "liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea".
Effluent Treatment Plant is a plant which is used to treat the effluent and make it environment friendly. The process flow chart of ETP is shown in the following fig:

Process Flowchart of ETP

Now I’ll briefly discuss the steps of ETP plant –

Screening is the first unit operation in ETP plant. Screen is a perforated device which is used to retain the coarser materials found in waste water. When the solid materials come in contact of the screen they stack and are removed manually or mechanically. This process is called screening.
Flow Equalization
Flow equalization is a system which is used to reduce the operational problems created by flow variations, to accelerate the downstream process. In case of any process failure in the treatment process, it is also used as an emergency tank to equalize the effluent. It ensures the constant or nearly constant flow rate of the effluent.
It takes place in rapid mix basins which is very rapid. The key function of rapid mix basin is to disperse the coagulant so that it contacts all of the effluent.
It is done to form aggregates from the finely divided matter. The flocculation of effluent is done in two ways. One is mechanical and another is agitation. In both mechanical and air agitation systems, it is common practice to taper the energy input so that the aggregates initially formed will not be broken as they leave the flocculation facilities.
Generally, industrial wastewater contains acidic or alkaline components which should be neutralize before discharge or treatment. Especially sulphuric acid, lime etc. are used to neutral the waste water.
Primary Clarifier
Primary clarification is a physical treatment process. In this process, solids are removed before biological process. After basic screening, it is the most cost effective way to remove these solids. When the process water enters the clarifier tank, floatable solids are removed from the surface by skimmers while settleable solids are collected at the bottom by a rack and are removed via a sludge removal system.
Biological Treatment
There are many biological processes that are used for wastewater treatment. The processes can be divided into five major groups: aerobic process, anoxic process, anaerobic process, combined aerobic anoxic and anaerobic process.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Processing Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A yarn is a continuous and uniform mass of fibres bounded together by the insertion of twist. Yarns are raw material of the fabric. The thickness of the yarn varies to a wide range. Normally, the thickness of a yarn is expressed in terms of count. Count may be defined as the number which expresses the fineness or coarseness of a yarn. The yarns may be spun from staple fibre or continuous filaments. Normally majority yarns are produced from staple fibre. To produce yarns from staple fibres, a wide range of machines are needed, called spinning machines.

Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A process flow chart of spinning machines and step – wise process sequence for producing cotton staple yarn is shown below:
Cotton in bale form
Blow room machine
Carding machine
Drawing machine
Roving machine
Spinning machine
Cotton yarn

Now I’ll describe the stages in brief as follows –
Cotton in Bale form
Bales are of raw cotton always contains a certain amount of impurities termed as ‘Trash’. The trash materials are broken seeds, husks, broken leaf, dirt’s, and short fibres etc. materials. The amount of trash varies from 1% to 15% depending on the quality of the fibres. Normally imported cotton fibrs are in bale form, which are highly compact form.
Blow room
Blow room is the starting section of a cotton yarn spinning mill. A series of different types of opening, cleaning, and mixing machines are used as per sequence in this section.
Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled or matted mass of fibres to a filmy web by working them between two closely spaced, relatively moving surfaces clothed with sharp points. A carding action is obtained when the teeth on the two surfaces are made to work point to point. When they are made to work point to back, the action is called stripping action.
Drawing Frame
The delivered sliver form the carding machine in coil form within the sliver can is fed in the drawing frame. The drawing frame may be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 headed machines. Two headed machine means two slivers will be delivered in that machine.  
Speed/Roving Frame
The delivered sliver from the drawing frame in the sliver can is fed in the speed frame. The speed frame is also called roving frame.
Ring Spinning
Ring spinning is a universal spinning system. The process involved in ring spinning is creeling, drafting, twisting, winding, building up and doffing. In normal ring frames, the number of spindles are 400-500, but 1000 delivery i.e. spindle per ring frame is also available. The delivered rovings in bobbin form is fed in the creels of the ring frame. The rovings are unwound by pulling action and passed through the drafting zone. At the front side of drafting rollers that is front roller, the drafted fibres become twisted and forms yarn.
Delivery package that is yarn bobbin is situated on the spindle. The delivered yarn is wound on the yarn bobbin.

Monday, August 17, 2015

What is CAD | Sequence of CAD Section in Garments

     CAD is the most talking term in the design world as it is very helpful to design something new with accuracy. It is used with confidence to design anything from t-shirt to aircraft. Though CAD is most widely used in designing precision machine parts or giant building structure, it is also used in the garment and textile industries. It has started its journey in the textile and apparel sector in 1970s and till now it is giving its services.

CAD in garments

     CAD stands for computer aided design. It is a composition of software and hardware that helps the engineers or designers to design anything. Besides software, CAD needs good-quality graphics monitor, mouse, light pen or digitizing tablet for drawing and a printer.

     It has reduced hard labor and saved time to design anything by the engineers and designers. Before the entrance of the CAD system, they used to design anything by setsquare. They also used to design by hard working and taking a long time, but the designs were not so accurate. And now a day, they use CAD systems to design anything more accurately with a less time.      

Benefits of CAD
The benefits of CAD are as follows –
  • It has lessened the costs of product development.
  • It has increased productivity.
  • It has improved product quality and faster time to shipment or market.
  • It speeds up the design process.
  • As it offers great accuracy, there are fewer faults.
  • It also offers easy re-use of the design data and best practices.
Process flowchart of CAD section
I’m describing the process sequence of CAD sections of garments with an image –

CAD Section in Garments

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Saturday, August 15, 2015

Process Flowchart of Merchandising

     The term ‘merchandising’ has always been a magic word and hot pick of the cake in the field of apparel and fashion merchandising. Most of the persons who want to pursue a career in the apparel field want to become a merchandiser. What makes this so much attractive and important is – reputation, responsibility and career growth. It involves all the activities right from A – Z communication to execution, in the apparel industry and the ‘Merchandiser’ is the person who takes care of all these activities. A good merchandiser has the attributes of hard work, sincerity, loyalty, team work, manager, negotiation etc. Customer satisfaction and retention is mainly depends on effective and efficient merchandising.

Now I’ll describe the process flowchart of Merchandising in brief with an image –