Saturday, July 16, 2016
At first we need to understand the term “Garments Merchandising”. “Garment” is an alternative term of apparel or cloth which we need to wear in our everyday life all over the world and “Merchandising” means developing, producing buying and selling of any goods or products or services for the local or international market. So, “Merchandising” is the bridge between the buyer and seller. If we combine this English two terms “Garments Merchandising” then the meaning of garments merchandising becomes like the following definition.
All the activities involved in procuring export order of any garment of any particular design for a specific quantity, analysis of the garment requires producing the garments, production scheduling & exporting the garments within fixed time frame may be called garments merchandising.
From the above definition of garments merchandising it can be clearly said that procuring a garments export order that is export L/C, production of those products as per buyers satisfaction within limited time is not an easy task. The activities which are involved in garments merchandising is normally done by an experienced & expert person called garments merchandiser. “Garments Merchandiser” is the most important key person of garments production & garments export sector.
The main role of Garments merchandiser is to collect garments export order (Export L/C), produce the garments, export the garments on time & earn profit for the organization. To perform those functions successfully need lots of knowledge, experience & tremendous effort for a Merchandiser.
· To procure or collect an export garments order.
· To estimate the time action (T&A) plan to export of those garments as per limited fixed time.
· To ensure the booking of raw materials (Fabric & other trims) placed to the supplier needed for the garments to manufacture and export.
· Checking Proforma Invoice (PI) and term of payments properly given by the supplier.
· Placing the PI for opening Back to Back L/C to give payment to the supplier.
· To monitor the collection of raw material as per the T&A plan.
· To ensure the quantity & quality of raw material collected from supplier.
· Following the sampling process strongly as the export order totally depends on it.
· To select the garments factory if needed.
· To monitor the garments production progress as per T&A plan.
· To monitor the desired quality level of the produced garments.
· To monitor garments packing instruction.
· To monitor the shipment arrangements as per T&A plan.
· To maintain continuous liaison with buyer.
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Tuesday, September 1, 2015
Garments InspectionThe inspection that is done for controlling the quality of garments is mainly meant to examine in bare eyes. Checking of the fabrics of garments, sewing, button, thread, zipper, measurements of garments etc. with the standard process is called the inspection. In each section of a garments industry, there are arrangements for inspection. The main purpose of inspection is to identify the faults at the earliest possible steps for production of garments and earlier the defects will be detected lesser will be the wastage of time and money.
For conducting successful and meaningful inspection, steps can be adopted as per the ‘inspection loop’ described below. First, identify defects through inspection, inform about the defects to the concerned person, identify the causes of defects, and rectify them.
- Raw material
- In Process and
Raw material Inspection
In garments industry, raw material means mainly the fabrics, but sewing thread, zipper or chain, interlining etc. also may be considered under the items of raw material.
Just the moment for production of garments, fabric is required, which is the main element of garment. Local or foreign that means whatever be the country of origin of fabrics, the quality of fabrics should be well judged before purchasing of fabrics, because, if not so, both time and money may be wasted. Specially, due to the low grade fabrics, burden of irreparable loss may have to be borne. Some factories do inspection after reaching the fabrics at their factories. But it is wise to do the fabric inspection at sellers factory.
Sewing thread Inspection
Frequent breaking of sewing threads during sewing of garment indirectly influences on the production of garments and its quality. It is necessary to mention here that in running condition of machine, the sewing threads run through the needles at a speed of 140 to 165 K.M per hour. The strength of thread may be decreased from 2 to 32% due to the friction of threads with the various parts of machines and fabrics. For this reason, before purchasing of sewing threads, the below mentioned characteristics of threads should be verified –
- Ticket number
Chain or zipper is a special part of a garment, which if defective, the garment may be unfit for wearing. Need to be ensured beforehand about the below issues so that the defects related to the zippers should not arise.
- Uniform color
- Arrow mark
The process of inspection of the various parts of a garment before joining is called in-process inspection. In garments industry, inspection is done in each section starting from spreading to finishing. The main objective of in-process inspection is to identify the defects in the primary stages of various sections and to adopt the necessary steps to rectify the defects. Because, the defects detected as earlier, its rectification cost will be lesser. In order to control the quality of garments, the measures that can be adopted in the steps of garments making, are discussed below in steps:
If mistakes or defects occurred in marker making, the quality of garments will be lower. So all the matters involved in marker making, should be inspected properly. As for example, need to examine whether the labeling or code numbers have been placed properly in each of the patterns drawn in the marker.
The defects during spreading of the fabrics, for which the quality of garments may be lower, should be taken care at the time of spreading of fabrics. As for example, during spreading, fabric should be spread as per the length and width of the marker and the edges of fabric both in the directions of length and in width have to be aligned. Otherwise, the wastage of the fabric will increase.
The most important precondition for making of high quality garments is the cutting of fabrics in high quality. So the factors related to fabric cutting, should be inspected carefully. As for example, whether the dimension of the patterns and the cut fabrics are exactly same or not should be inspected.
In garments manufacturing industries, the most specious and the most important section is the fabric sewing section. The jobs of each sewing machine operator of this section should be regularly inspected, and specially, it is to be specified that up to what level of faults in each job is acceptable, and always arrangements should be made for identifying the defects through inspection, and to adopt measures for rectifications, and to control the defects.
Pressing or Finishing
The main objective of pressing or finishing is to make arrangement so that garments look good, because, in most of the cases a customer takes the buying decision of the garment based on whether it looks good or not though buying of a garment also depends on its price, quality, standard etc. For this reason, pressing or finishing is very much important.
In the final inspection, mainly the whole inspection of garments is done, because, before this stage, there is no opportunity to do inspection of a complete garment. This final inspection is very much important from the buyers end. In this final inspection, mainly the size of the garments, form fitting, and the defects of the garments are inspected.
Monday, August 31, 2015
To calculate the fabric consumption per dozen of a shirt and polo shirt, measurement chart and garment design supplied by the buyer were considered. In this case a trouser sample supplied by the buyer is considered, diagram of the trouser is shown in the following figure:
From the supplied sample following measurements were taken by the use of a flexible measurement tape.
Waist ……………………………… = 32”
Length ……………………………. = 40”
Width at crotch point ……............. = 13”
Main fabric consumption/pc
= (length + Allowance) X (Width + Allowance) X 4
= (40” + 3”) X (13” + 2”) X 4
= 43” X 15” X 4
= 2580 sq. inch
If 58” width of fabric is used to manufacture the trouser, then the length of fabric/pc will be = 2580/58
= 44.48 inch
= 1.235 yards/pc
= 1.24 yards/pc
It is also required to calculate pocketing and lining fabric requirement. As per design, two front pockets are considered. Calculation is as follows –
= (Pocket length + Allowance) X (Pocket width + Allowance) X 2 X 2
= (12” + 2”) X (7” + 2”) X 2 X 2
= 14” X 9” X 4
= 504 sq. inch
= 504 sq. inch/36”
= 14” length of fabric
= 14” X 12/36
= 4.67 yards/dozen
Hence, pocketing fabric requirement per piece of the said trouser will be 14” length of fabric of 36” width pocketing fabric that means 4.67 yards per dozen. Now, main fabric requirement per dozen of the said trousers should be calculated considering size ratio assumed as follows:
No. of PC
Hence, we found 15.13 yards/dozen of the said trouser will be required as main fabric and 4.7 yards as pocketing fabric.
Cost per dozen of the said trousers can be calculated as follows:
Cost of main fabric ……… = 15.13 yards
= 15.13 X 2 $ (2 $ per yard)
= 30.26 $
Cost of accessories/doz ……… = 7.00 $
Washing cost/doz ……………. = 4.50 $
C. M. …………………………… = 20.00 $
Total cost = 61.76 $
Hence, the costing price of the said trouser is calculated as $ 61.76 per dozen. In reality, cost/dozen may vary to a wide range depending on some factors like design, measurement, size ratio, accessories, washing cost & C.M. of the trouser. Fabric wastage & garment wastage should also be taken into account to the cost/dozen of the garment.
Friday, August 21, 2015
There are various systems for fabric inspection, such as Four Point system, Ten Point system, Grantville system etc. but in the mentioned systems, or in any other systems, there are no arrangements until recently, for considering of the shade, bias, handling etc., of fabrics. The four points system for fabric inspection has been described here. Because the system of examining of the quality of fabrics in this system, has been recognized by American Apparel Manufacturing Association (AAMA) and American Association of Quality Control (AAQC).
Four Points System
In this system, the numbers of defective points in one hundred square yards of fabrics are determined through inspection. If the defective points in each one hundred square yards of fabrics be 40 or above, the fabric will be considered as rejected. Based on the price and quality of garments, the acceptability of defective points may be determined more than 40 also, but in that case it depends on the understanding of the buyer and the seller. The chart of point determination for the defects in fabrics is given below:
Both ways in warp and weft the length of the defect in fabrics distribution of points
Defects up to 3 inches …………………………………………… 1
Defects from 3 to 6 inches ……………………………………… 2
Defects from 6 to 9 inches ……………………………………… 3
Defects more than 9 inches ……………………………………. 4
The volume of Holes & Openings
1 inch or below.………………………………………………….. 2
More than 1 inch ……………………………………………….. 4
Note: In each yard of fabrics, the defect points more than 4 cannot be counted.
The defective points and the system of determination of acceptability of a fabric are shown through an example. Let, by examining a roll of fabric in 48” width and 120 yards in length, the below defects have been determined or marked:
4 defects below 3” …………………………………………………... 4 X 1 = 4points
6 defects between 3” to 6” ………………………………………..... 6 X 2 = 12 points
2 defects between 6” to 9” ………………………………………..... 2 X 3 = 6 points
1 defect more than 9” ……………………………………………… 1 X 4 = 4 points
Total points = 26 points
Points / 100 square yards
Total defect points 100 36”
= ………………………… X ………… X …………………………………...
Total fabric yardage 1 Width of the examined fabric (inch)
26 100 36”
= ………… X ……… X ……...
120 1 48”
= 16.25 defect point/100 sq. yds
The total defective points in each 100 sq. yds being below 40, this roll of fabric may be accepted. It may be mentioned here that the limit or level of acceptability of fabric is determined by the buyer and seller of the fabric. How much the difference in length and in width in the rolls of fabrics will be accepted also depend on the written contract between the buyer and the seller of the fabric. The sampling plan for inspection is also not done by any hard and fast rule. But, 100% inspection is done on the fabrics from which the value of the garments produced is more than US $20, and 10% inspection is done on those fabrics where the value of the garments produced from the fabric is less than US $20.
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Woven Fabric Defects with their Causes and Remedies
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Wednesday, August 19, 2015
Tailoring and industrial garments manufacturing system is almost same. Their output is also same. But there are many differences too. Tailoring is done according to the desires of particular persons of the local area. Industrial garment system is done for mass people. It is done on the basis of national or international demand.
Tailoring system is a system where garment is made for a particular person according to the body measurement of the person. Industrial garment system is a system where garment is produced for mass people according to standard measurement chart.
Let’s know the difference between Tailoring and Garments Industries from the following table –
Difference between Tailoring and Garment industries
Tailoring is for a small group of people.
Garments industries are for mass people.
A garment is made for a particular person.
Garments are made for many people at a time.
Body measurement of a particular person is taken into an account.
Standard body measurements chart is taken into an account.
No grading is done.
Grading is done for a particular size.
Garments can be made by one or more number of machines.
Many machines are needed here for production of a garment.
Initial setup cost is low.
Initial setup cost is high.
Single ply/lay of fabric is used during cutting.
Multiple plies of fabric are used during cutting.
Wastage of fabric is high.
Wastage of fabric is less.
Risk of loss is least.
Risk of loss is high.
No need of pattern.
Pattern is a must.
It takes more time to make garments.
It takes comparatively less time.
Monday, August 17, 2015
CAD is the most talking term in the design world as it is very helpful to design something new with accuracy. It is used with confidence to design anything from t-shirt to aircraft. Though CAD is most widely used in designing precision machine parts or giant building structure, it is also used in the garment and textile industries. It has started its journey in the textile and apparel sector in 1970s and till now it is giving its services.
CAD stands for computer aided design. It is a composition of software and hardware that helps the engineers or designers to design anything. Besides software, CAD needs good-quality graphics monitor, mouse, light pen or digitizing tablet for drawing and a printer.
It has reduced hard labor and saved time to design anything by the engineers and designers. Before the entrance of the CAD system, they used to design anything by setsquare. They also used to design by hard working and taking a long time, but the designs were not so accurate. And now a day, they use CAD systems to design anything more accurately with a less time.
Benefits of CAD
The benefits of CAD are as follows –
- It has lessened the costs of product development.
- It has increased productivity.
- It has improved product quality and faster time to shipment or market.
- It speeds up the design process.
- As it offers great accuracy, there are fewer faults.
- It also offers easy re-use of the design data and best practices.
Process flowchart of CAD section
I’m describing the process sequence of CAD sections of garments with an image –
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Saturday, August 15, 2015
The term ‘merchandising’ has always been a magic word and hot pick of the cake in the field of apparel and fashion merchandising. Most of the persons who want to pursue a career in the apparel field want to become a merchandiser. What makes this so much attractive and important is – reputation, responsibility and career growth. It involves all the activities right from A – Z communication to execution, in the apparel industry and the ‘Merchandiser’ is the person who takes care of all these activities. A good merchandiser has the attributes of hard work, sincerity, loyalty, team work, manager, negotiation etc. Customer satisfaction and retention is mainly depends on effective and efficient merchandising.
Now I’ll describe the process flowchart of Merchandising in brief with an image –
Thursday, August 13, 2015
Sweaters are very popular among all classes of people. Adults, teens and children wear sweaters. These become very popular during winter season because these keep the body warm. These are also popular because of some other reasons such as these are not tight fitting, easy to wear, colorful and fashionable.
Sweater is a piece of knitted or crocheted garment specially made from wool. Sometimes cotton or synthetic fibres are used. It covers the upper part of the body. To clean sweaters, washing or dry cleaning is done.
There are two derivatives of sweaters. One is cardigan and the other is pullover or vest. A cardigan is a sweater that opens in the front side of the body and can be closed with ties, buttons or clasps. A pullover is the most common type of sweater and covers around the torso and arms. Lastly, the vest has no arms and is typically worn over a blouse, long sleeve shirt or other knit shirt.
Now, I’ll describe the process flowchart of Sweater manufacturing in brief with an image–
Tuesday, August 11, 2015
T-Shirts are very popular now a day’s among all classes of people. These are very fashionable, classic, durable and easy to wear. Generally, these are made of 100% cotton, but can be found in polyester or a polyester-cotton blend.
Its fabric is manufactured by knitting action of circular knitting machine. T-shirt has short sleeves and no collar, weight is light, close-fitting and with a round neckline. It can be worn as an under-shirt or outer-garment.
Friday, June 26, 2015
Definition of Quilted Fabric
Quilted fabrics are layered materials consisting of two cloths that encase a filling and are stitched together to form a puffy unit.
Composition of Quilted Fabrics
The outer layers of these fabrics used for apparel are generally of cotton, polyester, nylon or blends of such fibres. For isulative purposes and to prevent any filling from working through the outer material, the cloth should be closely woven.
The filling may be goes down; a down and feathers mixture; kapok; polyester staple or continuous filament; resin bonded polyester; acrylic staple fibre; or polyester or polypropylene microfiber. This fabric should be comprised of about 90 percent air and 10 percent fibre. In terms of weight and mass in relation to warmth, down is more effective than acrylic and polyester fibres. When hollow man-made fibres are used, there is a slightly greater insulation than offered by the solid fibres of the same type. The micro-fibres, which may be as much as 10 times finer than the staple fibres with about 20 times more surface area per unit of weight, have a much greater ability to trap air and have been shown to provide still greater insulation.
Characteristics of Quilted Fabrics
All other factors being equal, a fabric with fewer quilt lines will provide greater insulation because there is little insulation at the lines. Furthermore, the insulation itself tends to move away from the quilt lines thus reducing the areas of insulation.
It is important to note that when a quilted fabric gets wet and moisture penetrates into the filling, its insulative property is markedly reduced – as is true for fabrics, generally. However, it has been demonstrated that a filling of polyester and polypropylene fibres, particularly microfibers, recovers more fully from compression when wet than other fillings and therefore provides greater volume faster with the consequent insulation. Water repellent finishes on the outer cloth does help maintain dryness, but heavy rain or other sources of water saturation will eventually penetrate fabric pores and stitching holes. Water proofing will overcome this problem, but that prevents the natural vapor flow of humidity and body perspiration to escape and will ultimately cause discomfort.
Good quilted fabrics for outdoor use should be wind-resistant for greater protection. Wind resistant is achieved by weaving fine yarns very compactly so as to reduce to a minimum the size of the interstices, or pores, of the fabrics. Such fabrics are very frequently made of polyester/cotton blended yarns, but more effective are those made of all-cotton. When given a water-repellent finish, all-cotton fabric can be even more effective against rain and snow than a polyester/cotton fabric. Weather conditions and personal considerations should affect the consumer’s choice.
Thursday, April 2, 2015
Normally garment or apparel washing means cleaning of dirty garments with soap or detergent. But it is not that garments washing. An industrial apparel washing is a technology. The technology which is used to modify the outlook, appearance, comfort-ability and design of the ready made apparel made from solid color dyed or pigment printed fabric is called garments washing.
Garment washing machine
Apparel washing industries need the following machines for various types of apparel washing. The most common machines are:
- Garments washing machine
- Garments drying machine
- Sand blasting unit
- Boiler for steam generation
- Wash water treatment plant
Garments washing machine is the main machine where most apparel washing is done.
Various types of Garments Wash
Normal washing is the simplest type of washing with lowest washing cost. By this system starch materials present in the new garment is removed together with dirt, hence after wash the garments feel soft during use. During normal wash on garments, washing effect could be varied by altering washing temperature, washing time, quantity of detergent used etc.
Pigment washing process is similar to normal washing process. Apparels are made from pigment dyed or pigment printed fabric. Then the apparels are subjected to pigment washing. By this washing, fading effect is produced in the garments.
There is a similarity between bleach and pigment washing. In both the cases, partial color fading effect is produced. In case of bleach washing, the fabrics of the apparels are normally dyed with direct or reactive dye.
It is done on the garments made from heavy fabrics like denim and jeans. It is a very popular wash. Due to this type of washing, different types of irregular color fading effect is produced. Moreover, shrinkage also occurs in the apparels resulting correct size of the garments.
Apparels made from denim and heavy jeans fabric are normally considered for acid wash. Fading effect is produced in irregular pattern by the use of pumic stone. Garments like trouser and jackets are frequently washed by acid washing technique.
Enzyme wash is done on the apparels made from heavy fabrics like jeans and denim. Cellulose enzyme is used for this type of wash. This cellulose enzymes hydrolysis the projecting hairy cotton fibres of the apparels fabric surfaces and also removes color. Use of stone makes brushing action on the garment fabric surface; as a result irregular color fading effect is produced and also contributes to removal of projecting hairy cotton fibres.
It is a mechanical process of faded effect formation of apparels made from heavy fabrics like denim and jeans. At present time sand blasting is a very popular garments washing. The sand blasting process is normally followed by a wash or dyeing process. The subsequent wash may be a normal, bleach, enzyme wash etc.
Super white wash
Super white washing is done on the apparels made from cotton grey fabrics. Due to this type of washing, the apparels become extremely white. Washing is done in three steps.
In the case of caustic wash, pre-treatment and printing of the garments fabric is little bit different than the normal process. Normally printing on fabric is done after pre-treatment of grey fabric that is desizing, scouring and bleaching. But in case of caustic wash, printing is done on the fabric without pre-treatment of the fabric. These fabrics are used to manufacture apparels. Then the apparels are subjected to caustic wash. During caustic wash 20% - 30% pigment is washed out, as a result different color fading effect is produced in the apparels.