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Friday, September 26, 2014

What is fusible interlining? Construction of fusible interlining

Introduction 
          Every clothing manufacturer continually attempts to produce garments with immediate sales appeal. However, one of the most important materials used for nearly every item of outerwear has no sales appeal, because it is invisible to the consumer. This material is the fusible interlining, and since these materials were first introduced in the early 1950s, they have become an integral component of garment construction.

Definition
          The term fusible interlining is used to describe a base fabric coated on one side with a thermoplastic adhesive resin which can be bonded to another fabric by the controlled application of heat and pressure. These materials, generally called fusible, provide the designer with a number of properties which can enhance the appearance of finished garments by the following –
a.     Control and stabilization of critical areas.
b.     Reinforcement of specific design features.
c.      Minimum of modification to the ‘handle’ of the top cloth.
d.     Preservation of a crisp and fresh look.
Correctly selected and applied, fusible have many advantages for the designer, the production unit and the consumer.

Construction
          A fusible combines the following three factors in its construction –
Base material – Also called the substrate.
Thermoplastic resins – Synthetic resins which melt when subjected to heat and revert to their original solid state when cooled.
Coating – The amount of resin deposited and how it is secured on to the base fabric.
          The following figure shows the basic construction of a fusible and illustrates how the resin is disbursed into the top cloth when the two layers are bonded. The finished bond is referred to as a laminate.
 
The term fusible interlining is used to describe a base fabric coated on one side with a thermoplastic adhesive resin

Base materials
          The base materials are produced in a diversity of woven, knitted and nonwoven forms, with each type having its own particular application according to its intended function on the garment. The materials can be produced from natural or synthetic fibres or from blends of each of these fibres. Base cloths influence the following characteristics of the finished garment –
a.     Handle and bulk.
b.     Shape retention.
c.      Shrinkage control.
d.     Crease recovery.
e.     Appearance after washing or dry cleaning.
f.       Durability.
          The properties of different base materials sometimes overlap to a considerable extent so the following descriptions some general insations.

Resins
          Resins are the sole bonding agent between the top cloth and substrate and irrespective of the type of resin used; they have to conform the following conditions –
Upper-limit temperature – The resin should become viscous at a temperature below that which would damage the top cloth. Whilst this temperature varies according to the consumption of the top cloth, it rarely exceeds 1750 C.
Lower-limit temperature – This is the lowest temperature at which the resin starts to become viscous. For most fusible this is about 1100 C, and for the fusible used for leather and suede materials, the temperature is considerably lower.
Clean ability – The adhesive properties of the resin have to be sufficiently strong to withstand washing or dry cleaning throughout the normal life of the garment.
Handle – The resin must contribute to the required handle and non act as an unwanted stiffening agent on the final laminate.

Resin types and applications
          The type and properties of the most widely used resins are –
Polyethylene – At different densities this is suitable for wash and wears garments or for those which have to be dry-cleaned only.
Polyamide – All polyamide resins produce full dry-cleanable and washable bonds but there is a class of this resin which is dry-cleanable only.
Polyester – These resins have the same general properties as polyamides but are generally a little cheaper.
PVC – Used extensively for siliconised rain wear fabrics.
Plasticized polyvinyl acetate – A multi-purpose resin which is both washable and dry-cleanable.
Plasticized polyvinyl acetate - Mainly used for leather but it is not dry-cleanable and has very limited wash ability.

Coating
          There are two aspects of the coating – density and coating system.
Density
          Resins are applied to substrates in three different densities – low, medium and high – and the degree of density refers to the actual mass per unit volume of the resin material. This physical density is directly related to the melting point of the resin and its resistance to dry-cleaning solvents, and as a rule the higher the density, the better the resin stands up to dry cleaning.

Coating system
         This refers to the process whereby the resin is deposited and secured on the substrate. There are three principal methods –
Scatter coating – This method uses electronically controlled scattering heads to deposit the resin crystals on to the moving substrate surface is covered with resin, which reduces the flexibility of the laminate.
Dry dot printing – In this process the resin is printed on to the substrate in regularly spaced dots by means of rollers with indentations which hold the resin crystals. This method is generally regarded as producing the most flexible bond.
Preformed – The resin is heat processed to form a net which is then bonded onto the substrate by heat and pressure. During heating the link lines of the net melt, leaving a minute dot pattern on the base cloth. This method is also used to produce paper-backed tapes which are used for fastening hems and facings instead of blind stitching or felling.

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Fusing Process and machinery

Fusing Process

          Regardless of which fusible and machine are used, fusing is controlled by four processing components – temperature, time, pressure and cooling and these have to be accurately combined in order to achieve the optimum results.
Temperature
          There is a limited range of temperatures that are effective for each type of resin. Too high temperature causes the resin to become too viscous, which could result in the resin being forced through the right side of the cloth. If the temperature is too low, the resin is not sufficiently viscous to disburse into the top cloth. In general, resin-melt temperatures range from 1300 to 1600 C and the best results will normally occur within ± 70C of the temperature specified by the manufacturer of the fusible.
 Time
          The only time element of any value during the fusing process is when the top cloth and fusible are under pressure in the heating zone of the machine. This time cycle for a particular fusible is determined by –
a.     Whether the fusible has a high or low melt resin.
b.     If a light or heavy substrate is being used.
c.      The nature of the top cloth being used, i.e. thick or thin, dense or open.
Manufacturers of fusible supply data sheets which give the time cycle for each fusible, and this refers to the actual fusing stage only.
Pressure
          When the resin is viscous, pressure is applied to the top cloth and fusible assembly to ensure that –
a.     Full contact is made between the top cloths and fusible.
b.     Heat transfer is at the optimum level.
c.      There is an even penetration of the viscous resin into the fibres of the top cloth.
Most fusing machines use two steel rollers or pressure plates to create pressure, but a flexible pressure system has been developed which automatically adapts itself to variations in the thickness of the assembly being fused, whilst maintaining an even pressure over the entirely assembly.
Cooling
          Enforced cooling is used so that the fused assemblies can be handled immediately after fusing. Cooling can be induced by various systems, including water-cooled plates, compressed air circulation and vacuum. Rapidly cooling the fused assemblies to 300 to – 350 C makes for a higher level of productivity than if operators have to wait for the assemblies to cool naturally.
          The fusing process produces what is, in effect, the foundation of a garment and the best results can only be achieved when there is an accurate and continual control of the four processing components.

Fusing machinery

          A press is used for fusing and three basic types are –
a.     Steam press
b.     Flat bed press
c.      Conveyor belt press
Each type of machine has its own range of capabilities.
Steam press
          Regular steam pressing machines are not designed for fusing although some fusible are produced for use on these machines. Pressing machines have some serious limitations regarding fusing including –
a.     Inability to reach the heat levels required by the majority of resins.
b.     The shape and size of the bucks restrict the size of the components which can be fused.
c.      Most utility machines are not fitted with programmed controls, which mean that the entire process is operator controlled.
d.     If the resin was originally activated by steam heat, the same thing can happen when garments are pressed during their production. This situation can cause serious problems with the stability of the laminates.
Regular steam pressing machines are not the ideal medium for fusing.
Flat bed press
          Flat bed presses are purpose built fusing machines produced in a large variety of sizes and which many types of work aids. This type of press has padded top and bottom bucks with electric heating elements in one or both bucks. The bottom buck is static and the top buck is lowered to fuse the assembly whilst under pressure, and then raised after cooling. Most of these machines are fitted with timers and programmed controls and can achieve high levels of fusing quality.

Flat bed presses are purpose built fusing machines produced in a large variety of sizes and which many types of work aids.
Flat bed press fusing machine
Conveyor belt press
          Conveyor belt presses are also called continuous machines because they can be operated without stopping for the loading and unloading of the assemblies. The conveyor belt transports the assemblies through all the processes and the belt speed is adjustable according to the time cycle required. This type of machine is available in different lengths and widths and can be fitted with automatic feeding and unloading systems. A feature of the more modern machines is a microprocessor which can be programmed to control every element of the machines operation.

Sunday, September 14, 2014

What is Interlining? Types of interlining

Definition of Interlining

          Interlining is one kind of accessories which is used between two layers of fabric in garments to support, re-enforce and control areas of garments and to retain actual shape. It may be applied on base fabric by sewing and bonding.

Interlining is one kind of accessories which is used between two layers of fabric in garments to support, re-enforce and control areas of garments and to retain actual shape.

          The fabrics which are used as interlining are made cotton, nylon, polyester, wool and viscose. Sometimes finishing is necessary to improve its properties i.e. shrink resist finish, crease resist finish.

Types of interlining

There are two types of interlining as follows –
a.     Sewn interlining or non fusible interlining and
b.     Fusible interlining

Sewn interlining
          The interlining which could be fixed with the garments components by sewing that is termed as sewn interlining. For the preparation of sewn interlining a piece of fabric is treated with starch and allowed to dry and finally sewn with main fabric.

The interlining which could be fixed with the garments components by sewing that is termed as sewn interlining.

Advantages
a.     To make flame retardant garments.
b.     Simple and easy technique.
c.      No elaborate machine is required.
d.     Possible to use in steel or re-rolling or highly heated industry.

Disadvantages
a.     Quality is not good.
b.     Not suitable for large production.
c.      Not available in market so we need to prepare it.
d.     More time required.
e.     High work load and labor cost.

Fusible interlining
          The interlining which could be fixed with the garments components by applying heat and pressure for certain time is called fusible interlining.
For fusing recommended temperature is 1650 to 1700 C. Fusing time is 2 to 20 seconds and pressure depends on the fusing technique.
The interlining which could be fixed with the garments components by applying heat and pressure for certain time is called fusible interlining.

Advantages
a.     Appearance, shape and quality are same as others.
b.     Available in market.
c.      Cheap.
d.     Fusing time is less.
e.     Labor cost is low.
f.       Production is high.
g.     Overall performance is better than non fusible interlining.
h.     Easy technique and no need of especially skilled operator.
i.        Fusible interlining is used as work aid.

Disadvantages
a.     High temperature is required.
b.     Special care is needed during attaching interlining.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

An overview on garments lining

Definition:
Garments linings have functional and consumer appeal objectives and this section will examine the principles involved, starting with the material itself.
Lining are generally a functional part of a garment, an accessories. They are available as warp knits but they are predominately woven are made from polyester, polyamide, viscose for use where a slippery material is required and from cotton and wool mixtures where decoration or warm handle required. Lining material can be used for small parts – pockets and for complete garments, either fully bagged out. It can be used in coat, jacket and raincoats, body and sleeve, for ladies items such as blouse, frock etc.
Objects:
a)     To maintain the shape of garments.
b)    To improve hang and comfort by allowing it to slide over other garments.
c)     To add insulation.
d)    To cover the inside of a garment of complicated construction to make it neat.
e)     They are selected to match the garments to be unobtrusive.
f)      To add the design of garments.
Difference between lining and interlining:

Lining
Interlining
1. It is used inside of garments or garment components.
1. It is used between two layers of fabric.
2. It is attached by sewing.
2. It is attached by sewing or applying heat and pressure.
3. Finishing is not necessary.
3. Sometimes finishing is necessary to improve its properties. E.g. shrink resist finish. Crease resists finish.
4. No coating is used.
4. Coating is used.
5.It is used in coat, rain coat, over coat, pocket flap, kids garments, jacket etc.
5. It is used mainly in collar, cuff, and front of jacket, waist band, and front part of coat.
6. No classification.
6.It is two types:
a)     Sewn interlining.
b)    Fusible interlining.
7. It is used to increase hang and comfort of garments.
7. To support, reinforce and control areas of garments and to retain actual shape.
Fibre types and properties:
Today natural fibres are rarely used to construct linings due to high cost and some difficulties with imparting a suitable finish to fabrics. Synthetic fibres are now the most widely accepted for garment linings, and the following describes the main properties of those which have the most widespread use in the clothing industry.
Viscose:
Viscose is made from cellulose which is derived from wood pulp, and like most other synthetic fibres, it goes through a number of chemical and mechanical processes until the filaments are ready for spinning into yarns. Linings constructed from viscose fibres have strength, luster, softness and affinity for dyes.
Rayon:
Originally rayon was produced as a cheap substitute for silk and the fibres were known as ‘artificial silk’. Rayon linings have similar properties to those of viscose but are somewhat weaker.
 Polyamide:
Derived from nylon, polyamide produces linings with excellent tensile strength and a relatively high degree of elasticity, and it takes dye-stuffs very well. A drawback with polyamide linings is that some solvents used for dry cleaning can have a detrimental effect on the fabric.
Polyester:
Polyester fibres are closely related to polyamides and linings made from polyester fibres have many similar properties. The first polyester linings had a tendency to soften when pressed with a hot iron, but fibres with a high melting point have since been developed and these withstand regular pressing temperatures.
Other than some polyamide linings, none of the linings made from these synthetic fibres are harmed by dry cleaning and they can be safely pressed up to a temperature of 170o C. Although some warp knitted linings are available, weaving is the predominant method of construction and three of the basic weaves are shown in the fig.
An overview on garment interlining. Synthetic fibres are now the most widely accepted for garment linings like as viscose, rayon, polyamide, polyester etc.