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Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Different types of pocket

The Different types of pocket – 

     A small bag sewn into or on clothing so as to form part of it, used for carrying small articles is known as pocket. The different types of pocket are shown below - 

Patch

     A pocket that is pressed and sewn on to the exterior of a garment.

Patch

Patch with pleat

     As the patch pocket, but with a box pleat to create more space within the pocket.

Patch with pocket

Jetted

     The pocket is constructed by cutting through the garment to the required length of the finished pocket, then the edges are bound and a pocket bag attached to the back of the garment.

Jetted

Jetted with reinforcement

     As the jetted pocket, but with leather or fabric patches stitched to the edge of the pocket to strengthen the finished binding.

Jetted with reinforcement

Bound patch

     As the patch pocket, here shown gathered into a binding applied to the top edge to neaten it.

Bound patch

Shirt

     Normally a breast pocket placed on any kind of shirt but usually a work shirt. It is a patch pocket with a shaped bottom and a turned back and top-stitched welt effect at the top.

Shirt

Patch with flap

     As the patch pocket, but with a bagged out flap, the same width as the patch and stitched above the patch, to cover the opening. It is finished with a button or stud fastening.

Patch with flap

Welt

     Similar in construction to the jetted pocket in that the garment is slashed to the length of the finished pocket and a folded and bagged out piece of fabric, the width of the finished pocket, plus seam allowance, is set into the slash and stitched up at the sides. The extended flap is stitched down at the sides and covers the pocket opening.

Welt

Jetted with Zip

     As the jetted pocket, but with a zip set into the opening created by the bindings.

Jetted with Zip

Shirred Patch

     As the patch pocket but the head of the pocket is elasticized to create a more spacious pocket.

Shirred Patch

Double pocket

    This is a patch pocket that is layered to create two pockets. The zipped top is the entrance to one pocket and here the left side is the entry for the other.

Double pocket

Post box in patch

     The patch pocket and jetted pocket combined in that the entrance to the pocket is through the jet, the patch being stitch all the around.

Post box in patch

Angled flap

     A shaped flap set into the garment like an upside down welt.

Angled flap

Jetted with Tab

     As the jetted pocket, but with a tab for fastening set into the jet.

Jetted with Tab

Mechanic’s

     Normally seen on dungarees, overalls and work jeans, the mechanic’s pocket is a large patch with cut away top and tag at the bottom for hanging tools.

Mechanic’s

Utility

     Like the kangaroo pocket but with many more divisions for specific tools and instruments.

Utility

Western

     Like the angled flap, but with a bottom carving to a point, echoing the western or cowboy style of pocket.

Western

Jetted with flap

     This pocket is like the jet with tab. The flap runs the full width of the pocket and here has curved corners.

Jetted with flap

Bellows

     A patch pocket with a pleat set behind it that expands to accommodate articles placed within it. Applied to work jackets and coats.

Bellows

Patch with tab

As the patch pocket, but with an extended tab and button head for decoration only.

Patch with tab

Denim top-stitched

     A patch pocket made from denim and applied to denim jeans and other jeans-styled garments. It has the hallmark twin top-stitching.

Denim top-stitched

Rounded flap

     Like the angled flap but with curved edges.

Rounded flap

Curved jet

     As the jetted pocket but the cut in the garment is curved, not straight. This example has leather reinforcements.

Curved jet

Bucket

     A patch pocket cut with flare at the top, like a cowl neck, and applied to the external surface of the garment. It creates a draped silhouette.

Bucket

Petal

     A patch pocket that is split in two and overlapped with a curved top, to create a folded petal effect.

Petal

Kangaroo

      A wide patch pocket split into two by a stitch line.

Kangaroo

Contoured Jet with reinforcement

     As the curved jet but the opening is exaggerated to show the pocket bag, which is made in a contrast fabric. The corners are also reinforced.

Contoured Jet with reinforcement

Hidden in seam

     This pocket has the appearance of the curved jet, but is much simpler in construction. It is set into a seam, topstitched and reinforced, pocket bags are applied to the seam allowance inside the garment.

Hidden in seam

Epaulette Pocket

     This pocket is similar to the hidden in seam pocket, the seam being part of a raglan sleeve and set close to the shoulder. Consequently the pocket has the name epaulette, i.e. shoulder ornament.

Epaulette Pocket
Epaulette Pocket

Side

     This pocket is set into the side seam of the garment, similar to the hidden in seam pocket.

Side pocket
Side pocket

Curved inset

      The pocket here is constructed as a part of the front of the trouser or skirt, the back of the pocket is also part of the construction. The back of the pocket bag is an extension of that part of the garment, the front of it is effectively a facing to the front part of the garment.

Curved inset
Curved inset pocket

Slanted Inset

     As the curved inset but the shape of the pocket is that of a slant instead of a curve.

Slanted Inset
Slanted Inset

Cargo

     Similar in construction to the mechanic’s pocket but applied to the waist of jeans or dungarees. The belt passes through the top of the pocket.

Cargo
Cargo pocket

Ticket

     Introduced to carry railways tickets around 1860, the ticket pocket is frequently seen on denim jeans.

Ticket
Ticket pocket

Waist line pockets


Waist line pockets

The photographs are showing two shots of waist line pockets.
Right side pocket is closer to the Button over the Zip and the left side pocket is closer to the Button hole. Both are around 3.5 inches X 4.5 inches. 
Similar pockets are stitched inside the Hand pockets with a small inclination outside.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Lace Fabric | Parts of lace construction| Uses and types of lace

Definition

          Lace is an open work fabric consisting of a network of yarns formed into intricate designs. Lace may be hand or machine made, and intricate patterns can be produced by either technique. Both narrow and wide lace fabrics are available. The edges of the fabric may be straight or curved.
                  It is an important trimming, for it is used for table cloths, curtains, handkerchiefs, dresses and underwear.

Parts of lace construction

          In identifying various kinds of lace, references have been made to their designs. These patterns are constructed of different parts, each having a particular designation.

In identifying various kinds of lace, references have been made to their designs. These patterns are constructed of different parts, each having a particular designation.

Bride or Reseau: It is the fine yarn that forms the mesh which provides the sheer ground (background) between the prominent parts of the pattern.
Cordonnet: It is the heavy yarn that outlines the pattern.
Picot: It is a decorative loop used both in the pattern and on the edge of the lace.
Toile: It represents the predominant parts of the pattern made by braiding, knotting, looping, or twisting the yarn.

Uses of laces

          Lace is a decorative fabric used in apparel and home furnishings. Narrow laces are used for trims and insertions; wide lace fabrics are used for curtains, table cloths, and garments.
          Laces are made in different widths for different uses. For example, a narrow lace with a scalloped edge is used for trimming a baby’s dress; a lace with slits or eyelets is so made that ribbon may be run through it.
All-over laces: An all over lace is a fabric up to 36” width with the design or pattern spread over the width of the fabric and repeated in its length. Many kinds of design motifs and colors are used. The fabric can be produced in widths of over one yard (1m) that are devoid of scallops. The fabric is cut and solid from the bolt like woven dress goods. The dressmaker cuts it to pattern and makes it up into formal evening, dinner, and cocktail dress and blouses.
Flouncing: Flouncing applies to laces 18 to 36 inches wide with a plain edge at the top and a scalloped edge at the bottom of the fabric. It is used for wide ruffles or flounces. Often these flounces are arranged in tiers to form a skirt.
Gallon: A galloon is a lace up to 18 inches wide with a scalloped edge at top and bottom. It may be used as an insertion between two cut edges of fabric.
 Insertion: Insertion is a band of lace sewn between two pieces of fabric or on a single piece of fabric at the straight top or bottom edges. A variety of insertion is footing, which has a straight edge at top and bottom but no patterns. Footing is often used at the bodice or at the bottom hem of a slip.
Beading: Beading has slots through which ribbon may be run. These slots may be found in edgings or galloons but are much more common in insertions.
Edging: An edging is a lace never more than 18” wide that is straight at the top and scalloped at the bottom. It is sewn to the edge of a dress, gown, blouse, handkerchief, or lingerie.
Medallion: A medallion is a lace in a single design that can be appliquéd to a fabric ground for ornamentation. It is sometimes used in the corners of napkins, or towels or as an ornament for a dress, blouse or lingerie.

Types of lace

          The two main types of laces are real or handmade or machine made. Linen thread is usually used for real lace and also expensive laces, but cotton, rayon, nylon, silk or other yarns are now used for various qualities and types and for machine lace.

Handmade lace or real lace
Bobbin lace: Sometimes called pillow lace, the lace design is drawn either on pillow or on a paper that is placed over the pillow. Small pegs or pins are stuck into the pillow along the design, and a large number of small bobbins of thread are manipulated around the pegs or pins to produce the lace. A number of threads, each on its own bobbin, are interlaced by twisting and plaiting around the pins to produce the motif in a mesh construction. As the lace is completed, the pins are pulled out and the lace is removed from the pillow. Making pillow lace requires great skill and dexterity, for as many as three hundred bobbins may be needed to make some patterns.
Darned lace: It has a design darned by a chain stitch onto a mesh background. When made by hand, the design of darned lace is sewn with thread and needle passed in and out of a mesh net. There are two principal types of darned lace-
Antique lace – Has a darned lace pattern on a rectangular mesh ground.
Filet lace – Has a darned lace design on a square mesh ground.
Needle point lace: The design for needle point is drawn on parchment stitched to a backing of stout linen, and the lace is made by filling in the pattern with button hole stitches. When the lace is completed, the parchment is removed. Needle point lace is made entirely with a sewing needle and thread. A design is drawn on paper, thread is laid over the design, and the thread is then sewn in place with button hole and blanket stitches.
Crochet lace: When handmade, this is made with a crochet hook, to form a series of loops, each one of which is finished with a fine stitch, working usually with specially twisted cotton thread. It originated in Ireland as an imitation of Venetian needle point. It is a comparatively inexpensive heavy lace. Irish crocheted lace is typified by a rose or shamrock design that stands out from the background.
Tatting lace or Knotted lace: This is made by twisting and knotting thread by means of a small shuttle. When made by pass in a shuttle in and out of loops in a thread, it is called tatting. It is identified by a circle like motif and picots around the edges of the motif. Clover leaf and wheel designs are the most popular, but other patterns are also made.
Machine made Lace
Nearly all the laces classified as real laces can be duplicated by machine with slight variations and simplifications.
Leavers lace: The leavers lace machine can produce the most intricate patterns from any type of yarn into fabrics up to ten yards wide. It is huge, complex machine that takes an operator two to three weeks to thread. Very thin, round, brass bobbins containing up to 300 yds each are individually conveyed by carriages moving back and forth from one warp to another. As each bobbin is moved to a predetermined position, it swings between the warp yarns and wraps its yarn around one warp before it is moved to another. Since there are about 20 bobbins per inch, very intricate designs are possible. The fabrics can be fairly expensive. Leavers lace is used to a great extent in the dress industry.
Nottingham Lace: The Nottingham machine originated in Nottingham, England. It also utilizes swinging brass bobbins but produces a flat lace that is coarser than leavers lace. Its large overall patterns are used for such purposes as table cloths.
Bobbin lace: The bobbin machine employs the braiding principle. The lace produced has a fairly heavy texture, with an angular appearance and a uniform count. Bobbin lace lacks the fine texture and flowing lines of the laces produced by other machines.
Raschel lace: Knitting machines can be constructed to make lace resembling levers and crocheted laces. The Raschel machine, which has its needles set horizontally instead of vertically as for knitting, can produce at high speed inexpensive lace fabrics of man-made filament yarns.
Ratine lace: It is a machine made lace that has a ground of heavy loops resembling that of terry cloth.

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Zipper | Construction and types of zipper

Zipper or Zips | Construction | Zip types

Zips:
Although slide fasteners, as they were then called, were introduced in 1912, it took about another 20 years before they started to be used for men’s and women’s clothing. Since then zips have become one of the most extensively used closure methods utilized by the clothing industry. Apart from their functional purposes, zips are also used for decorative effects or as design features. Zips are a continuous form of closure as against buttons which are intermittent (থেমে থেমে).
So we can say that, in making trousers, shirts and jackets, zip or zipper is an essential component which is used to open or close the opening of garment.
Construction:
A regular zip has the following elements in its construction.
A regular zip has the following elements in its construction: tape, chain,slider, Top and bottom tops and pull tab etc. Types: regular, invisible, separated and continuous.

Tape: The majority of zip tapes are will woven from 100% polyester, which produces a strong, light-weight tape that does not shrink. Knitted zip tapes are soft and pliable and are mostly used for garments made from knitted fabrics.
Chain: This element is also referred to as the teeth or scoops and they are made from metal or plastic materials. Metal scoops are stamped out of brass or aluminium and are then clamped on to the beaded edge of the tape. Alternatively, continuous monofilament coils made from nylon or polyester are woven directly into the tape edge. Zips with coiled chains are lighter and more flexible than those with metal chains.
Slider: The function of the slider is to engage or disengage the opposite sides of the chain as it is moved up or down. The slider can be nonlocking or can have a built-in or semi or fully-automatic locking action. An automatic locking slider is very dependable although it is bulkier than the other two types.
Top and bottom stops: These prevent the loss of the slider caused through excessive up or down movement. For zips whose top ends are caught in the waist band seaming, the top stops are often dispensed with as the stitching serves as stops. The bottom stop prevents the zip from being opened to the lower end of the tape and thus jamming the slider.
Pull tab: This enables the consumer to easily move the slider in the desired direction. Tabs are produced in a great variety of shapes and finishes and are frequently used for decorative purposes.
Zip types:
There are several types of zips available, which enables the designer to select a zip that is the most suitable for a particular garment or end use. Some of the more commonly used zips are given here.
Regular type: Used in different lengths for skirts, dresses and other articles of clothing. This zip is usually inserted into a seam and whilst the zip is concealed, the setting stitching shows on the outside of the garment. To set this type of zip, a half pressure foot is used which enables the operator to sew close to the chain.
Invisible type: So called because the zip and its setting stitching cannot be seen on the right side of the opening. The insertion of this zip requires a special type of pressure foot and the setting operation itself is shorter and easier than for a regular zip.
Separated type: This type of zip is utilized when the garment can be worn either closed or fully opened. Some typical applications of separated zips are for blousons, parka jackets and zip-out linings.
Continuous type: Used for men’s trousers and all categories of jeans, continuous zips with an average length of 50m are wound onto reels with the metal chain closed or separated into left right sides. This permits each side of the zip to be set onto the respective panels before the crotch seam is closed. The slider and bottom stop are fitted by means of small mechanical devices located in suitable positions along the production line.
Continuous metal zips are cheaper in the use than those made to specific lengths as they can be cut to the exact lengths required and there is no need to maintain regular stocks of different lengths or the odds and ends which are bound to accumulate (জমানো).