Thursday, June 11, 2015
Women’s sheer nylon hosieries are made of filament nylon yarn. The yarn may be a stretch or bi-component type to provide increased elasticity. Spandex may be added for greater elasticity and support. The hosieries are circular knitted in several styles or lengths. The most popular style is pantyhose. Other styles considered important enough to mention here are grater length and knee high.
Pantyhose is, essentially, a combination of a pair of stockings joined to a panty created by knitting an elongated upper portion of the stocking. The legs are knitted in several sheernesses, generally of 15 denier (16.7 dtex) mono-filament stretch or bi-component nylon. The elongated welt portion is generally knitted of a plied 70 to 100 denier (77.8 – 111.1 dtex) multifilament nylon yarn. Pantyhose are also knitted of nylon and spandex yarns for support in the leg and panty portions; the amount of spandex is dependent upon the degree of support desired.
There are two basic methods of fabricating pantyhose. They may be made either from sections or in one piece.
Each leg is made separately on a circular knitting machine. The stocking may be kitted in a reciprocating form to produce a shaped heel or in a non-shaped tube form. The toe of each knitted legs is seamed closed in a manner that should provide both comfort and good appearance. Each stocking is later put on a flat, leg-shaped frame and permanently heat-set to the knitted size.
If the legs are knitted with shaped heels, they are paired, slit with a hot wire on the inside of the welt portion to make a left and right stocking, and then joined at the slit edge with a U seam. If the legs are knitted in tube form, each tube is slit the same way and joined with the U seam. To provide better fit and greater comfort, pantyhose are sometimes made with a sewn-in gusset in the crotch. These gussets may be made of nylon, cotton, or an appropriate combination. They are die-cut usually into diamond shape and then sewn in to form the crotch. Proper fitting and stitching require care by the manufacturer.
The waistband may be either sewn to the top or more usually, knitted into the top portion of the welt with laid-in spandex yarn.
There are essentially two ways of making one-piece pantyhose. One method utilizes the principles of a standard circular knitting stocking machine; the other uses a modified system of a 14-guide bar, 2-needdle bar Raschel machine.
The circular knit approach begins by knitting the toe end first. The toe may be knitted closed or left open to be stitched closed after the knitting is completed. Knitting proceeds from the toe end to construct a tube. After knitting one leg, the panty portion is knitted, and then the machine continues down knitting the second stocking tube.
The Raschel method knits both tubular stockings and then a mechanism influences a connection of the yarns from the leg tubes to form one large tube that will comprise the panty part.
Styles of Pantyhose
Pantyhose come in many styles. Selections of these are:
Regular style – sheer legs, reinforced panty and toe.
Sandal foot – sheer legs and toe, reinforced panty.
Sheer-to-waist – sheer from waist to toe, reinforced toe.
All sheer – no reinforcing.
Control top – panty of nylon and spandex, nylon legs, reinforced toe.
Control top sandal-foot – panty of nylon and spandex, sheer nylon legs and toe.
Support – legs and panty of nylon and spandex, panty and toe reinforced.
Sizes of Pantyhose
The size designations for pantyhose, as shown in Table, are set according to such characteristics as the height and weight of the consumer. However, these size classifications vary somewhat among manufacturers. The construction and yarn used are factors. The package generally provides the consumer with size information.
Definition of Hosiery
Before the sixteenth century, the Angelo Saxon word “hosa” designated a woven cloth garment that covered the lower portion of the body as well as the legs. As knitting was popularized and practiced to a great extent throughout England and Scotland, it soon became customary to knit the leg coverings separately by hand. In the course of time, these garments became known as stockings – and then socks, and now sometimes sox – derived from the Angelo-Saxon word “stocks” meaning enclosure restraint. Hosiery has become the general term for the various kinds of knitted foot and leg coverings.
Knitting of these garments was originally done by hand. Machine knitting, developed by Rev. William Lee in 1589, ultimately became the universal method of producing hosiery.
Yarns used for Hosiery
Wool was originally used for hand-knit stockings. Lee eventually refined his knitting machine to produce silk stockings. Today the yarns are made from a wide variety of fibres available. The selection of hosiery yarn depends upon the purpose for which it is to be used. Different types of hosiery are available for sportswear and dresswear for adults and children. The yarns may be made of spun staple or filament, and they may be stretched or textured. The properties of the fibres and the yarns will contribute particular characteristics to the hosiery, as noted in some typical fibres used.
Cotton is suitable for hosiery because it is soft, absorbent, and dries quickly. The durability of cotton hosiery is enhanced when it is made of lisle and mercerized yarns.
Wool is desirable for some hosiery because of its warmth. The high absorbency of wool is another good feature.
Although most types of rayon are not durable enough for hosiery, high-wet modulus Avril Prima Rayon which has permanent crimp is being used for socks. It is cheaper than cotton and competitively durable. Its spun like hand provides bulk, and it gives the fabric good dimensional stability.
Acrylic provides warmth and softness and has greater abrasion resistance than wool. Although it is not as absorbent as wool, it can be spun into yarn, bulked and finished to provide fairly good wicking action. It also provides greater ease of laundering than wool.
Nylon may be made into spun or fine filament yarn. The spun yarn is extremely abrasion-resistant, though not too absorbent. The filament yarn is strong and very elastic. It can be made in stretch and textured types.
Spandex yarns, both covered and uncovered, are practically well suited for support hosiery for men and women, including women’s sheer dress-wear.
Wednesday, December 10, 2014
Different types of panties
Panty is the under garments which covers female genital having a waistband and two leg opening. It is worn by women and girls. The pH value of panties should be in the limit of 6.8-7.2, otherwise it will be harmful to skin. There are many kinds of panties. Some of them are discussed bellow -
These types of panties are also known as granny panties or full briefs. It gives the maximum coverage of the body. It also helps to take is the fluffy parts of the body. It should be worn under flowy dresses. Should not be worn under tight dresses, in this case panty line will be visible.
These kinds of panties are generally worn under flowy dress and jeans. Under the tight dresses, these kinds of panties show their line. These are mainly made of cotton and softer than other and more comfortable.
It is also known as Hip huggers. It is likely classical panties but it is worn lower down the body and has waist band around the hips. It is worn under the low rise clothing.
Bikini is most common style worn by women worldwide. It is like hipsters but it has lower coverage in the front. It is mainly a part of bathing suit. It also can be worn under various kinds of dresses like jeans, shorts, trousers and many others.
Tanga is pair of briefs connected by strings. It is narrower than bikini but has more coverage thong. It has very low coverage. In some countries it is worn as swimming suit.
Thongs, also known as cheeky, are like tangas but its back area coverage is also minimized. In some countries it is worn as the bottom of the bikini. It has similarity to G-string.
A G-string is one kind of thong where a piece of cloth, lather or plastic that covers the genatal with the help of band which passes through the buttock. It is worn as bottom part of bikini, swimwear and also as underwear. Sometime jewelry is attached with it.
It is similar to gent’s underwear. It gives a large coverage and worn under the loose dresses. It helps to take in the fluffy area of the body. It is also known as boyleg. In some designs, there are some leg covering.
It is almost similar to hipsters but the waist band is narrower. As a result it gives lower coverage. It stays lower the naval. There are varieties of cheekster. They are mini cheeksters, regular cheeksters and so many.
V string is likely G string but V string has lower coverage. A piece of clothe covering genital holding by waist band and another band that goes under the body and connected with waist band.
These kinds of panties are mainly used to control the fluffy area of the body. It made of elastic material like spandex. Most of the time it is worn under the formal dresses but also can be worn casual dresses.
This kind of panty is used to give correct shape to the butt. It is designed to lift the butt. It covers a wide area but butts remain open.
It is mainly used to enhance the butt. There is a pad at the back side which enhance the butt. It is very tight and covers a lot of area.
This kind of panty is worn under the dresses which has a transparent or perforated part at the side. A piece of cloth is attached with wire. That metallic structure holds the cloth against the body to cover the genital.
It is mainly one kind disposable panty. Adhesive is used to wear the panty as it has no waist band. Some of this kind is reusable.
When some laces are attached with a panty in layers is called layered panty. The panty can be any designed like regular, thong, hipster etc. This kind of panty is worn as swimming suite.
It is mainly worn as swimming wear. It is decorated with jewellery, lace and many other things.
Some points should be cared to choose a panty. Those points are:
- Panties color should be identical to the dresses.
- Panty should not be so tight that cut into the flash.
- Panty line should not be visible from over the dress.
- Under the flowy dress regular, hipsters, cheeky, granny panties any one of them can be worn.
- That panty should be avoided that comes out of shorts or pants during sitting or working.
Credit goes to –
Md. Arafath Islam
Pabna Textile Engineering College
Connect him on_Facebook
Sunday, November 23, 2014
Types of bra
A bra that has no shaping and so gives the effect of flattening the breasts for the silhouette. It is made from strong white cotton covering the body to the waist shoulder support straps.
Every mother to be needs maternity bras to handle her growing breasts. A nursing bra is a maternity bra but with the added engineering of drop down cups so that baby can be nursed without Mom having to take her shirt off.
A strapless bra is a bra that doesn’t have shoulder straps, and these bras normally are lined with silicone or rubber stripes instead, often using foam cups for added support. It’s these support systems, as well as sometimes the additional use of underwire, and the overall structure of the bra that keeps you contained in the bra without sagging, falling out or bouncing around.
Strapless bras come in a variety of types, and can also be backless strapless bras in addition. You can find a padded strapless bra, seamless strapless bra, strapless plunge bra, and more.
Strapless bras are ideal for strapless dresses, and also lend themselves to bridal wear and tank tops or spaghetti straps. Whatever the occasion, your strapless bra should always make you feel confident because you are relying on the bra so much for support.
Push up Bra
Pushes up bras are typically more popular among average to smaller cup sizes because of their bust enhancing, cleavage creating properties. However, a fuller busted woman can still benefit from a push up bra because of the lift and cleavage they show in almost any type of shirt, dress, blouse or outfit.
Push up bra works by holding the breasts up, lifting and pushing them together with an adequate amount of separation to create cleavage.
You will find many other techniques in push up bras, such as molded foam built into each cup and padding inside the pockets of the cups that give you a visually enhanced look. This padding is often removable so the “add cup size” can literally be taken in and out at your convenience.
There are also many other styles of push up bras, including water bras and gel inserts, however push up molded cups remains the most popular of the choices.
Sports bras protect ligaments, eliminate bounce that is both cumbersome and embarrassing during work outs, and also prevent breast tissue damage. It’s imperative to not only wear a sports bra while working out, but to wear one that is comfortable and supports women.
Even moderate activity like cycling, long distant walking and free weights put a strain on women’s breasts. The stress that exercise puts on women’s breasts can cause long term damage, sagging, and discomfort.
Training bras do not give much support but it will show you what a real bra would do. They have elastic and stretchy fabric. They do not have a strap that can become tighter.
Soft cup bra
Soft cap bras give more support. They have straps and can be made tighter. They have no wire.
Soft cup tee shirt bra
These are invisible in tee-shirts. They have straps and can be made tighter. They give lots of support. They have a strap in the back have to put together.
These bras reveal more of the cleavage and normally wide. It is a sexy style of bra with low neckline that goes straight across the bust. It has a wide set strap for an open neckline. After wearing tops the straps cannot be seen from front.
Open cup Bras
This one is like a typical underwire bra, just with the cups above removed. You can still have the lace or stain accents on the sides of the brand. Women’s breasts are still relatively supported by the wire underneath. Woman won’t want to wear this under regular cloths out in public due to its revealing nature.
Here, you get something similar to the underwire style, but there’s a little more material. The bra almost appears to have the lower half of the cups still present. The top edges are outlined with material in a triangle shape. This type is a bit more modest than the underwire bra, but not much.
This is probably the most modest of all the open cup styles. Cups still intact for the most part, they are open by a slit right at nipple level.
Demi cup Bra
A half-cup style, the demi cup bra lifts and supports without leaving women completely bare. The bottom portion of women’s breasts will still be covered, leaving the upper half uncovered.
Properties of Demi cup Bras
i. Super soft cups.
ii. Moderate lift.
iii. No-show lace.
iv. Adjustable straps.
v. Additional lining.
vi. Two hook clasp.
Micro bikini Bra
These bras look like teeny tiny bikinis with slits cut in the center of each cup for nipple exposure.
Full cup Bra
Full cup bra covers the entire breast. This is one of the most comfortable bras.
A bra which is adheres to the breasts. It has no straps and gives a little support to the breasts. There are two types. There is the disposable paper ones that use a strong adhesive and the reusable ones that use silicone that can be washed and reused.
A bridal bra/corset mold and shape the upper body into a desired shape to fit the wedding dress. We can also add that, it promotes good posture and can be more comfortable as the weight of the breasts is carried by the whole corset rather than the brassiere’s shoulder straps.
Front Closure Bra
Bras that have closures, usually hooks and eyes, on the front rather than at the back. These bras lie completely flat at the back under clothing. Some features a racer back style back which is great for wear with tank tops and for lending a no-slip effect to the straps.
Contour BraContour bra is designed to help give shape and definition to your chest.
A contour bra has molded cups - and, the cups are also lightly padded, usually with a very thin layer of foam material.
Posture bras are bras that are mainly designed to support the weight of women’s breasts and provide relief from shoulder strain, neck strain and muscle tension headaches. Because they're designed with support in mind, posture bras are great for full-busted women who find that the weights of their breasts are not comfortable.
Plus size Bra
A plus size bra is a bra that is mainly designed to accommodate a more generous body type. Its included features are a wider band, proportional bra cups with more coverage, wider straps and other design features that make life easier for full-figured women. A plus size bra is also designed with a more curvaceous body in mind, which means it should fit better than a standard bra that has simply been made in a larger size.
A longline bra is an extended coverage bra that starts at women’s breasts, and typically goes down their stomach to end a few inches above your belly button. Their lengths may be different, but they all extend down below where a traditional bra band would stop.
Longline bras are great for women who want more support for their busts, and they're often worn under formal and evening wear.
Women’s lingerie collection isn’t complete without a Lace bra. Whether it’s classic and elegant or sexy and sheer, a bra with lace cups is always beautiful. Lace bras are usually sheer or feature a lace top lined with an opaque backing fabric. A lace bra can have just touches of lace details and lace trim, or are completely sheer with full lace construction. Depending on their personal style they can get a lace bra that’s simple and classic or a bra with lots of eye-catching detail.
This bra is commonly sought after by large-breasted women who wish to minimize the appearance of their breasts by a cup size or two.
Belly dance Bra
It is commonly considered that a belly dancing bra size is the same as normal bra size. This is not necessarily so.
A bullet bra is a type of women’s undergarment first worn and popularized in the 1940s and remained popular until the 1960s and 1970s. This garment takes its name from the conical shape of the cups made for this type or brassiere, which resemble the tips of bullets. These bras were especially popular during the pin-up era of the mid 20th century, and many models of that time were seen in these types of bras. While the bullet bra ultimately lost popularity due to changing manufacturing techniques and fashion trends, there are still some fans of vintage lingerie who appreciate these garments.
There are mainly two types of padded bra: either with removable inserts, or with padding sewn into the cups of the bras. If the padding is sewn in, it tends to be graduated thicker at the base of the cup to provide lift and give the breasts a more natural, rounded look.
A racerback bra is a style of bra where the straps cross each other or meet in a “T” shape across the back. This style is commonly used in fitness and sports bras, but can really be found in every type of bra, from everyday underwire bras to lacy formal ones. They usually have front closures due to the special back design, but they may have back closures or simply slip on over the head.
A molded cup bra is a bra whose cups are heat-molded to a round, seamless shape. Because molded cup bras are seamless, they're great for wearing under t-shirts or anytime you don't want seams to show. These types of cups contour your breasts into a flattering, rounded shape, and sometimes they have padding to help prevent nipple show-through.