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Friday, January 1, 2016

Different types of Garments Wash used in the Wet Process

In garments washing there are two processes. One is wet process and another is dry process. The process which we do in the wet condition is called wet process. In wet process we use different types of garments wash. Now we will describe them as follows:

Rinse Wash
Rinse wash is done only by water and slight detergent and backstainer. This shade is dark and not so much different from its raw denim. This process has some problems like color fastness to dry rubbing, wet rubbing and washing fail.

Rinse Washed
Garments Wash
Garments wash is a combination of rinse wash and softener wash. At first rinse wash is done and then softener wash is completed. In this wash color will not reduce. Generally the garments remain almost tonally unchanged. Garments wash also has some problems like color fastness to dry rubbing, wet rubbing and washing fail.

Garments Washed
Enzyme Wash
This wash is so called because enzyme is used in this wash. Normally washing means enzyme wash. After this washing the garments become nice to look at. According to the requirement of shade the enzyme may be neutral or acidic. It is one kind of laundering process that uses enzymes to clean or finish the garments or textiles. This wash is especially done for jeans. Enzyme wash also carry economic and environmental benefits. On an industrial scale, it has replaced laborious laundering techniques such as stone washing.

Enzyme Washed
Heavy Enzyme Stone Wash
In this type of wash enzyme and stone are used together. If we want to avoid the damages we have to follow some precautions. In this type of wash heavy abrasion occurs. This wash is especially done for denim. As a result of this wash medium level of shade comes. If we use bleaching light shade will come.

Heavy Enzyme Stone Washed
Enzyme Bleaching Wash
In this type of wash at first we use enzyme and then we use bleaching process. As a result of this wash light shade comes out. Chlorine and non-chlorine bleach can be used for this wash. To reduce indigo color or other colors bleaching is used.

Enzyme Bleaching Washed
Acid Wash
Acid wash is done by using Potash and Stone. At first we have to dip the stone in potash solution and then slight dry the stone and wash in a washing machine. As a result of acid wash we will get uneven look on garments.

Acid Washed
Tie wash
By tie washing we will get uneven crease on garments. Tie wash is done by tiding the garments and then washing it. We tie the garments according to standard. Basically for this wash we have to do enzyme or bleach wash. As a result of tiding the garments the sharp edges come in contact to the machine and the effects come out.

Tie washed
Rubber Ball Wash
Rubber ball wash is a garments and softener wash. In this process garments will be softer and at the same time seam abrasion will come. We use this wash to get more hand feel of garments. Rubber balls are added in the same bath of softener or in the dryer with the garments.

Rubber Ball Washed
Towel Bleach Wash
This wash is like acid wash. It is one kind of uneven wash. We get uneven shade from this wash. At first we cut the towel into small pieces and dip in the bleaching solution. After that we take these out from the solution and slightly dry. Then the garments and towels are tumbled in another machine for a certain period of time. After tumbling we have to neutral the garments properly. Now we will see that some places of garments are discolor or changed in color where the towel pieces touched the garments.

Towel Bleach Washed
Pigment Wash
The wash which we do for pigment color is called pigment wash. This wash is done to make the garments fashionable.  The garments surface becomes more uneven. In this wash color stays on the garments surface.

Pigment Washed
Resin Wash
In this wash we directly use resin that’s why it is called resin wash. Resin is used at a specific percentage. Generally we use this wash when we need less hand feel and more shine look. Resin also fixes the color with the fabric.

Monday, November 9, 2015

Different types of Washing Machine used in Dry Process

Dry process is a process which is applied at the dry condition of the garments is called dry process. This process is generally done at the unwashed condition of the garments. Dry process ornaments the denim garments. Most of the time dry process is done manually.

Different types of machine used in the washing plant at dry process

Sand Blasting Machine
These machines are used to remove the color from the garments. Sands directly hit on the garments surface by air pressure and the color come out from the garments surface. But now a days this process is not used due to environmental and health hazardous.

Stationary Sand Blasting Machine

Hand Sand Machine
Actually it is not a machine, it is a dummy. This machine contains one balloon, sand, and some pneumatic signals. Garments are put on dummy and then give air pressure and the process have done. We have to give proper air pressure; otherwise crease mark will come out at the time of hand sanding.

Hand Sand Machine

3-D Crinkle
This is the machine which is used for 3d crinkle. This crinkle slightly different from normal crinkle, one is two dimension and another is three dimension. This machine has some patterns which are put inside the garments and is heated at oven. Before putting the garments into the oven, we have to use resins at specific place. At first the resin is sprayed at the specific area of the garments and then put into the handle of the machine and making 3d crinkle as per required, after making 3d crinkle sent to oven for curing for pretreatment reaction.

3-D Crinkle

Plastic Staple Machine
This machine is used to tack the garments. This machine has needle and plastic pin. The workers press the paddle of the machine and then moves by the help of a motor and needle goes inside the fabric.

Plastic Staple Machine
Laser machine
This machine is used for whisker by burning the garments. This process is done by light emitting system. First time have to make a design for whisker by using Photoshop and Illustrator and then it will impose on garments after selecting the intensity of burn.
Laser machine
Normal Crinkle Machine
To squeeze the garments, this machine is used. At first we have to apply resin on specific area of garments and then squeeze the garments of that specific area at high temperature for a specific period of time. This type of crinkle is made for crimping after wash.

Normal Crinkle Machine

Pen Grinding Machine
This machine is used to destroy the garments. This machine is operated by pneumatic signals or electric signals. One stone is attached with this machine at the front side. When this stone moves with high speed on the specific area of garments it damages that specific area.

Pen Grinding Machine

Pressing Machine
Pressing machine is used for pressing the garments by heat and it makes permanent palette. In this machine we use steam as heat. First we have to press the garments by using steam to produce heat. Then the fabric reacts with resin.
Pressing Machine
Abrasive Paper
Abrasive paper is used to scrap the garments. This paper has so many grades. Generally in washing plant we use some of the grades like 220, 320, 420 and 620. This serial is based on the power of the paper. If the number is less power is more and if the number is high power is less.
Abrasive Paper
Oven
This is the machine in which curing is done. After the crinkle is done we put the garments in the oven for a specific time. We maintain temperature at 1500C because at this temperature the reaction of curing is occurred. At curing reaction resin reacts with cellulose and makes bond. This oven may be of gas, electric or other fuel based. Gas oven is easy to operate. Curing oven is two types. Open door or conveyor belt type and close door oven.

Open Door/Conveyor belt Oven
It is a continuous type oven which gives the production continuously. It can also be called conveyor belt oven. Ovens main door cannot be closed as the conveyor belt moves within the door. Productivity is more than close door oven. We have to set the retention time for this oven and the garments move inside the oven according to our set time. After completing the circle garments should be taken out. But the retention time depends on the standard. This ovens price is more.

Conveyor belt Oven

Close Door
In the close door oven garments are hanged with hanger and then put in the oven. After putting the garments inside the oven door closed for a certain time at curing temperature. The time and temperature is set previously. After curing has been completed the garments will be take out within the door. Installation of this close door oven is less than open door oven.

Close Door Oven

Whisker pattern
Whisker pattern is a kind of machine by which we can do whisker. This pattern is made by rubber sheets and art paper or only rubber sheets. After making the patterns put inside the garments and then scrap with sand paper.

Whisker pattern

PP Spray Cabin
This is the cabin that contains spray gun and rubber dummy. At first the garments are put on dummy and then spray pp by gun. This cabin has two or three exhaust fan. This fan exhausts the dust or pp smell from cabin. Potassium permanganate is hanged inside the cabin by bucket. When the workers start to spray the solution comes from the bucket with the help of the air pressure.

PP Spray Cabin

Grinding machine
This machine is used to grind the edges of garments. This has two wheels or more than two. These wheels move at a high speed by an electric motor. The garments edges come in contact with the wheels and become slightly damaged.
Grinding machine

Sunday, November 1, 2015

Different types of Machine used in Garments Washing Plant: Wet Process

The machine which we use directly for washing is called washing machine. Washing machines are used in the washing plant. We can do all types of washing with these washing machines. Washing machines can also be used for garments dyeing. Sometimes after washing these machines are also used for spinning purpose. But spinning is only done with front loading washing machine. Washing machines can be divided into two categories based on loading.

Different types of Machine used in Textile Washing Plant are as follows:
Front loading
The machine which can be loaded from front side is called front loading machine. This is a computerized machine and also a modern washing machine. This machine is automatically controlled. It has also good operating system. Dyeing facilities are also good. This machine also has some disadvantages like rpm problem, not user friendly compared with belly machine, bleaching process is very critical, parts are not available etc.

Front loading

Top loading
The machine which is loaded from the top side is called top loading machine. This machine is manually operated. This is also called belly machine. The advantages of this machine are: easy to operate, manually controlled, user friendly, workers are available etc. Some disadvantages are: difficult to control all parameters, have to handle manually, not suitable for garments dyeing etc.

Top loading

Hydro Extractor
Hydro-extractor
Hydro extractor machine is used for removing water from garments. After washing we put the garments into hydro extractor machine. Hydro extractor machine works based on the centrifugal forces. When hydro extractor is moving with high speed materials and water wants to go outside. Materials cannot but water will go. About 70-80 percent of water is removed by this process.

Ozone Machine
After washing this machine is used to change the color of garments. This machine is also used for washing purpose. Sustainable washing can be done with this machine. No water treatment is required as there is no water consumption. It is considered that, in the near future this machine will be more popular. This machine is incorporated for removing back stain, to make light shade without using chemicals and for cleaning the surface of tinted garments.

Ozone Machine

Gas dryer
In this dryer heat is produced by burning natural gas. When the dryer drum keeps moving this heat is applied on garments. The dryer drum takes heat from the upper part of the dryer.

Gas dryer

Steam Dryer
In this dryer steam is converted to heat by using a heat exchanger. Then the heat is applied on the garments and dried. The name of heat exchanger is condenser. Condenser converted the steam to heat.

Steam Dryer

Sunday, August 23, 2015

Garments Washing: Normal Wash

Normal wash is the simplest type of wash with lowest washing cost. By this type of wash starch materials present in the new garment is removed together with dirt. Hence, after wash the garments feel soft during use as well as wash look effect is also observed in the garments. During normal wash on garments, washing effect could be varied by altering washing temperature, washing time, quantity of detergent used etc. parameters. A process of normal wash on garment is described below:

Normal Washing Procedure:
Depending on capacity of garments washing machine, quantity of garments to be washed in a batch should be predetermined. Here a batch of 100kg cotton shirt is considered. Liquor ratio 1 : 5 is considered and as per selected liquor ratio 500 litre water is loaded in the washing machine and 100 kg shirt is also loaded in the washing machine. Then the machine running is started and 1kg detergent @ 1% is added to the liquor. Steam supply started to raise liquor temperature between 400C to 600C. If washing effect is needed more, then the liquor temperature should be used more. Washing time may vary from 15 to 30 minutes. If washing effect is needed more, then the washing time should be higher. During washing, liquor and material both move. Mechanical action of agitation and chemical action of detergent removes starch materials from the garment fabric to the liquor. At the end of washing time, the liquor is drained off and fresh water (500 Litre) is again loaded in the machine. Again washing is carried out with only water at 400C for 5 minutes to remove adhering starch materials within the garment fabric. Then the liquor is drained off.

garments washing machine

Again, 500 litre water is loaded in the washing machine together with 0.1 to 0.5% softener, continue washing for 5 to 10 minutes to increase softness feeling of the garments. Then drop the liquor, unload the garments on the trolley. The washed garments are then loaded in the hydro-extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments. Then the garments are unloaded from the hydro-extractor machine and reloaded in the garments drying machine and the garments are dried by the action of hot air flow or steam flow.

Due to garments washing, there may be problem of back stain formation. If coloring materials present in the garment fabric is partially removed from the garment fabric during washing, may redeposit on the pocketing or lining fabric of the garment resulting color stain called back stain. Formation of back stain in the garments due to washing is considered as washing defect. Back stain is not acceptable to the buyer. Hence, proper precaution should be taken to avoid back stain. The probable reasons of back stain formation due to garments washing are as follows:
  • Excess use of fabric softener.
  • If garment fabric color is of low quality.
To overcome the problem of back stain formation following measures to be taken –
  • Complete garments washing without softener and observe the back stain. If back stain is not formed, then the reason for back stain formation is for the use of excess amount of softener. Hence, use of softener is to be reduced. If back stain is observed then it is clear that the low quality of colored materials present in the garment is the reason of back stain formation.
  • For low quality color of the garment fabric, the garment needs pre-treatment prior to normal wash. The pre-treatment: load 100kg garments in the washing machine and add 500 litre water @ L : R = 1 : 5. Add color fixing agent @ 1% that is 1kg to the liquor and start machine running. Start steam supply to raise temperature to 400C and continue processing for 10 minutes. Drop the liquor, unload the garments, hydro-extract the garments and then dry the garments in the garments drying machine. If pre-treated garments are processed for normal wash, then the problem of back stain formation could be avoided.

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Difference between Dyeing and Printing

Dyeing is the process by which a textile material is changed physically and chemically and finally looks like colored materials.
Printing means partial or localized dyeing. It can be described as the controlled placing of defined areas of color onto a substrate.

Difference between Dyeing and Printing method

Dyeing
Printing
It means full dyeing of fabric.
It means partial dyeing of the fabric.
Fabrics, yarns and fibres are generally dyed.
Only fabric is printed.
Dyed both side of the fabric.
One side is printed.
Here, any specific design is not necessary.
Here, specific design is necessary.
Generally one color is used.
One or more color is used.
Color is applied in solution form.
Color is applied in thick paste form.
Thickener is not used.
Thickener is used.
Large amount of water is used.
Less amount of water is used.
Steaming or curing is not necessary.
Steaming or curing is necessary for fixation.
Not expensive.
Expensive.
Dyed fabric is relatively soft.
Printed fabric is relatively harsh.
Liquor ratio is high.
Liquor ratio is less.
Dye solution concentration is less in dye bath.
Printing paste concentration is higher in printing.

Super Critical Fluid and their Textile application

Generally, students have to make Presentation on different topics. Here, Textile Apex comes to help the students. A presentation on Super critical Fluid and their Textile application has been presented here. You can download it from Slides hare. Hope that, it will help you.
  

Friday, February 27, 2015

Different Dyeing Techniques

Fabrics are either yarn-dyed or piece-dyed. Yarn-dyeing means that the yarns are colored prior to weaving. They can be stored as raw yarn and dyed when required according to the dictates of fashion. Piece-dyeing means that cloth is woven as what is known as ‘grey’ goods and is then dyed according to fashion need.

Dyed fabric

Direct dyeing
It requires only one immersion in color and has no fixing process.
Disperse dyeing
It requires the fibre to be subjected to heat which makes it swell. The color is then introduced under pressure.
Pigment dyes
Pigment dyes are mixed with a binding agent and applied to the fibre. Basic, acid and napthal dyes produce bright colors. Sulphur dyes have a limited color range. Chrome dyes are used on wool with an additional chemical to aid penetration of the fibre.
Natural or vegetable dyes
These dyes have been used traditionally for many years and often become fashionable because of their particular color characteristics.

Other dyeing techniques
Batik
Batik is native to java. Molten wax is applied to the cloth in a hand-painting process. The wax hardens and provides a ‘resist’, the cloth is dyed and the process can be repeated over and over again to create more complex designs. The wax is removed to reveal a cracked wax, veined appearance. The background becomes progressively deeper with repeated dyeing.
Garment dyeing
It creates an over-dyed appearance on already constructed garments. The advantage of this process is that a combination of fabrics may have a similar tone of color.
Ikat
It is a process whereby the yarns are ‘space’ dyed prior to weaving, producing a blurred effect. It is very popular, depending on fashion trends, and is a traditionally oriental technique.
Ombre
Ombre (shade) is a technique whereby the fabric is dyed with graduated tones from light to dark.

Other decorative effect
Embossing
This technique uses heat to produce permanent effects on thermoplastic fibres.
Crinkle
This can be achieved like embossing, by applying heated rollers to the fabric, or by applying caustic soda.
Puckering
It requires chemicals to be applied to the fabric which dissolve some fibres. When the cloth is drying these areas shrink, producing the pucker.
Moire
This can be achieved by impressing heat rollers on to, preferably, ribbed fabric. Light reflects on the processed ribbing to create a ‘watery’ effect.