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Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Processing Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A yarn is a continuous and uniform mass of fibres bounded together by the insertion of twist. Yarns are raw material of the fabric. The thickness of the yarn varies to a wide range. Normally, the thickness of a yarn is expressed in terms of count. Count may be defined as the number which expresses the fineness or coarseness of a yarn. The yarns may be spun from staple fibre or continuous filaments. Normally majority yarns are produced from staple fibre. To produce yarns from staple fibres, a wide range of machines are needed, called spinning machines.

Flowchart of Cotton Yarn

A process flow chart of spinning machines and step – wise process sequence for producing cotton staple yarn is shown below:
Cotton in bale form
Blow room machine
Carding machine
Drawing machine
Roving machine
Spinning machine
Cotton yarn

Now I’ll describe the stages in brief as follows –
Cotton in Bale form
Bales are of raw cotton always contains a certain amount of impurities termed as ‘Trash’. The trash materials are broken seeds, husks, broken leaf, dirt’s, and short fibres etc. materials. The amount of trash varies from 1% to 15% depending on the quality of the fibres. Normally imported cotton fibrs are in bale form, which are highly compact form.
Blow room
Blow room is the starting section of a cotton yarn spinning mill. A series of different types of opening, cleaning, and mixing machines are used as per sequence in this section.
Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled or matted mass of fibres to a filmy web by working them between two closely spaced, relatively moving surfaces clothed with sharp points. A carding action is obtained when the teeth on the two surfaces are made to work point to point. When they are made to work point to back, the action is called stripping action.
Drawing Frame
The delivered sliver form the carding machine in coil form within the sliver can is fed in the drawing frame. The drawing frame may be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 headed machines. Two headed machine means two slivers will be delivered in that machine.  
Speed/Roving Frame
The delivered sliver from the drawing frame in the sliver can is fed in the speed frame. The speed frame is also called roving frame.
Ring Spinning
Ring spinning is a universal spinning system. The process involved in ring spinning is creeling, drafting, twisting, winding, building up and doffing. In normal ring frames, the number of spindles are 400-500, but 1000 delivery i.e. spindle per ring frame is also available. The delivered rovings in bobbin form is fed in the creels of the ring frame. The rovings are unwound by pulling action and passed through the drafting zone. At the front side of drafting rollers that is front roller, the drafted fibres become twisted and forms yarn.
Delivery package that is yarn bobbin is situated on the spindle. The delivered yarn is wound on the yarn bobbin.

Thursday, January 29, 2015

What is yarn?

Definition of yarn

Name given to any textile fibre when prepared in spinning process for being woven into fabric. Yarn is the most diverse description and its value varies according to its luster, bleaching, dyeing properties, its fineness, strength, elasticity, uniformity of diameter, smoothness, suppleness, and natural colors.


Yarns can be single, folded or fancy or twisted to right or warp way; twisted to left or weft away.
Single yarns or threads are fibrous matter twisted together in spinning.
Cotton thread is dull, soft, pliable, and of moderate strength and elasticity.
Cotton waste thread of low-counts is of two varieties.
Linen thread is of 2 varieties – line and tow – both are stiff, rough and are elastic.
If spin wet, they are compact, smooth, and brighter than when dry spun. Bleaching treatment makes it pure white and becomes lustrous and soft.
Woolen thread is soft, spongy, hairy, elastic, moderately strong and possesses felting properties. Bleaches indifferently but dyes easily.
Worsted thread from combed wool has uniform diameter, luster, and are with a good chemical resistance.
Silk is made into net, spun and noils threads. Net-silk gives organize and tram. For their diameter both are the strongest, most elastic textile threads. Spun silk is less lustrous and elastic.
Mixed yarn is obtained by mixing and spinning different fibres.
Folded threads are made to impart increased strength, elasticity and smoothness and are glazed or unglazed for special purposes like lace making, hosiery etc.
Fancy yarn is made by twisting together threads of different materials of different counts, colors etc.

Friday, December 5, 2014

Filament yarns | Bullet proof, ballistic yarns | Lusture

What is filament yarn?

     Man first learnt the technique of filament yarns from the silk warm; which extrudes fibroin – a viscous proteinous liquid through its two spinnerets. No sooner these filaments come in contact with atmospheric heat than they solidify into yarns.

 Filament yarns
     Manmade yarns can either be (a) regenerated (Viscose, polynosic, acrylics and acetate) or (b) synthesized from petroleum byproducts (polyfibres). Fibres forming molecules themselves are like a yarn – too long as compared to width. These molecules are capable of linking and forming a long chained polymer.
     As chemicals, raw materials and time of reactions as well as temperature used in manufacturing, vary from lot to lot, these polyfibres exhibit different dye take-up from one lot to another and should never be mixed at any stage.

What is Lusture?

     Fibre and filaments are most lustrous when they remain parallel to yarn axis. Twist reduces lusture. More the twist less the lusture. Polyfibres possesses natural synthetic sheen.
     Lusture is a phenomenon of light reflection. The smoother the surface more the reflection. In twinkle nylon, light rays are made to enter one yarn face and remerge from the same face. This principle of total internal reflection becomes possible because of a triangular, prismatic cross-section of the nylon filament.
     Yarn with a mixture of coarse and fine fibres will be more hairy than all coarse or all fine fibre yarn and diffuse light instead of reflecting it. Synthetics have a typical glitter which is not always a desirable attribute.

Bullet proof, ballistic yarns

     Fabrics which can withstand and resist the impact of single or rapid small fire power are made with super strong synthetic continuous filaments. The most popular among them, KEVLAR – 29, is used for making vests for army personnel.

     Manufactured by Du Pont U.S.A in several types, Only Kevlar 29 – an Aromatic Polyamide (Aramide) is tough enough to absorb the force of a bullet and dissipate the heat and impact energy without cracking.

Properties of bullet proof yarn

-         Tenacity superbly high – twice and more than polyester and nylon.
-         Average molecular chain length (M) 20,000.
-         Breaking strength 20 dynes/tex at 2% strain.
-         Specific tensile strength 525 lb/in.
-         Sp. Strength modulus doubles of glass and 20 times more than best steel.
-         Chain length 108 µ (µ = 10-6).
-         Tenacity 22 g/dtex.
     Sometimes, impact of powerful close range bullets of Colt, Mauser or AK-47, do crack KV fabric. Then the next generation fibre P84 can be used. Its tensile strength is 33g/dtex against KV’s 22-or its strength is 1.5 times more. It is an aromatic Poly Cimide. In KV or P84 – molecular chains are highly oriented along fibre axis as shown in fig. There is no amorphous region. Each chain is pressed side by side and held together by Van-der-walls, forces. Hydrogen and co-valent bonds become armor when woven and shrunk to correct specifications, though, such reflections are beyond the limits of this small feature.

Monday, December 1, 2014

Twist | Twist in yarns

What is Twist? Write about Twist in yarns

     Higher the twist more the yarn strength, till optimum twist is reached. But due to property of ‘fabric assistance’ even less than optimum twist will produce fabrics of maximum strength.
     It also costs money. The circular threads in cloth become elliptical in shape due to flattening. High twisted thread resists flattening, size penetration and their covering power is reached. Spun threads are invariably irregular and hairy and both these specialties help to hide minor weaving faults.
     A cotton fibre has about 50 crimps per cm which help a lot in spinning. Voil and crepe threads are purposely hard twisted for producing an open structure cloth. In voil it is 25-30 TPI and in crepe 40-60 TPI. Crepe threads are twisted to a degree when no compactness occurs on further twisting. On wetting, threads swell and contract, producing a low profiled wavy structure. Only hydrophilic fibres swell. Silk and viscose are the best crepers. Yarn’s irregularity may be short, medium or long term, depending upon whether it is 10, 100, or 1000 times, the average fibre length.

Twist in yarns

     All staple threads need to be twisted in direct proportion to the square root of thread count.
     It varies according to the type of spinning machinery used and end use of the thread. Filling or weft threads are generally given lower twist than warp, as they do not bear shedding and other tensions or reed friction.
twist in yarns

     Knitting yarns are softly twisted and a few yarns used in suitings, in worsted, higher twist is imparted to yarns to reduce fabric’s fuzziness.
     Pot spun threads need more twist than ring or flyer spun threads. Up to a certain stage, twist beyond which a reduction in strength takes place. As it costs money and reduces production; yarns are seldom-twisted full. Due to the property of “Fabric assistance” a cloth woven with lesser twisted yarns or threads, is as strong as that woven with optimum twisted threads. But voil and crepe threads are purposely hard twisted. Threads needed for knitting or weaving women’s wear are soft twisted.
     It is then is termed soft, medium, medium hard or hard. For crepon or sheersucker effect and for cord effect, threads are made hard twisted. It can be S, left handed (regular or open hand) or Z right handed (reverse or cross hand).
     A hard twisted thread becomes wiry, resists liquid penetration and flattens with difficulty. It also acquires a certain amount of elasticity and a tendency to snarl and resist change. An mf yarn is as strong without twisted condition as in twisted condition. It disturbs parallel configuration of monofilaments and their load sharing capacity. A certain amount of twist helps in weaving of mf yarns. Terms, twist per meter and twist per inch are used in continuous filaments and staple spun yarns respectively. A certain amount of lengthwise contraction occurs in yarns with increase in twist, but the amount is quite small. Yarns for American Georgette are given up to 3500 TPM. Polyester filament such as 75/34/0 and 150/30/0 are used as filling in shirtings and suitings without twist.
Note: I'm Sorry to say that I've used the word thread replacing yarn for my own business. Plz don't take it negatively.
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Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Polyester weaving, Acrylic, Viscose/rayon yarns

Technological points of Polyester weaving, Acrylic, Viscose/rayon yarns by rotor spinning

Polyester weaving yarns
These yarns are normally for technical fabrics that have high performance requirements. They are used in tapes, belts and substrates and composites. Care has to be exercised to obtain the maximum possible yarn strength. This means that the fibres should not be damaged in the opening area or at the nozzle. Suggestions are:
1.     The rotor diameter has to be selected according to the count being spun, i.e. 40 mm SB rotor for Ne 8/1 to 16/1 and 35 mm or 31 mm SB rotors for finer yarns.
2.     The hardened steel or boron treated steel rotors, SB, are recommended for 100% polyester.
3.     The nozzles should have a low false twisting action. The flat type nozzle is recommended. The smooth nozzle SGF is suggested as the least aggressive nozzle. When a slightly higher level of false twist is needed the grooved nozzle S3KF is sometimes used.
4.     The soft twist tube may be needed to improve the spinning stability; however it may result in a reduction of yarn strength.
5.     The opening roller wire is frequently difficult to select. The uncoated OS 21 wire does the least damage to the fibre and is the best surface if it has an acceptable lifetime. However, the polyester may have a finish that is abrasive and this tends to wear out the wire in an unacceptable short period of time.
6.     Coated opening roller wire such as OS 21 /6 DN may improve the lifetime, but the fibre may be damaged by the diamond coating and create dust build up in the rotor groove. To minimize fibre damage the opening roller speed should be as low as practicable. Additionally the feed plate should not over control the fibres increasing the fibre opening forces.
7.     In some cases the needle-opening roller has proved to be the best for certain applications. Check with the business unit.

Acrylic yarns
Acrylic yarns are used for a variety of products from knitted apparel to industrial awnings and substrates. Most of the acrylics are either dyed fibre, package dyed, or piece dyed as fabric. Acrylics are normally compatible with rotor spinning, but some of the end products have to be high in lustre, soft and bulky. This is a challenge in rotor spinning because of the yarn structure and wrapper fibres.
1.     For knitting yarns, the wrapper fibres should be minimized. Larger rotors and open grooves (57 degree rotor) are preferred. The softest yarns are produced with 56mm, 48mm and 40mm rotors if the spinning economics are acceptable.
2.     Yarns can be spun using the 35mm and 32mm rotors, but the yarn will be compact and somewhat stiff.
3.     The nozzle has to be selected to meet the end use requirements. Sometimes the grooved nozzle such as the K4KK is good for producing a hairy yarn under a stable spinning condition, but unfortunately the yarn may shed badly in the knitting machine. This effect is partially dependent upon the fibre finish. In any event the fibre should be produced specifically for rotor spinning.
4.     A smooth nozzle is frequently preferred for acrylics.
5.     The soft twist tube may be necessary to improve the spinning stability and allow low twist yarns to be produced; however, the hairiness will be slightly increased.
6.     The OS 21 opening roller works well. The diamond-coated wire tends to damage the fibre and cause shedding on the machine.
7.     The yarns that are going directly to the knitting machine have to be waxed at spinning. Knitting yarns that are going to be package dyed should not be waxed until after the dyeing operation.

Viscose/rayon yarns
Viscose was one of the earliest fibres to be spun on the rotor spinning because it did not contain trash and it was not temperature sensitive. However care has to be taken to optimize the machine for high performance spinning.
1.     The rotor diameter depends upon the yarn count and the staple length. Viscose can be spun on rotors of any diameter, from 28mm to 56mm.
2.     The rotor surface should be hardened steel or boron.
3.     Rotor speeds can be relatively high if the fibre is produced with a finish for high speed rotor spinning:
                   48 mm up to 70,000 rpm,
                   40 mm up to 80,000 rpm,
                   35 mm up to 95,000 rpm,
                   31 mm up to 115,000 rpm
                   30 mm up to 125,000 rpm
4.     The “S” rotor groove is used to produce a strong uniform yarn.
5.     The nozzle has to be selected according to end use requirements. Some applications need the smooth nozzle while others need the grooved nozzle.
6.     The OB20 DN or the OB20/4 DN opening roller wires are commonly used. In plants where various types of fibres are spun, the OS21/ 6 DN can also be used for viscose.

Monday, November 10, 2014

Denim, Drapery and upholstery yarns

Technological points in Denim, Drapery and upholstery yarns in ring spinning

Denim yarns
Denim yarns now cover a wide range of applications from traditional cotton “Jeans fabric” produced from Ne 5.6/1 to ladies fashion shirts produced from Ne 22/1 and finer. Denim was originally defined as woven, cotton, fabric produced from an indigo dyed warp and a natural colored filling and most of the yarn counts fell between Ne 5.6 and 12/1. 

Denim yarns

The warp yarns used for the indigo dyeing process and the subsequent re-beaming operation have to have a low “cling” tendency. This is not the case for filling yarns nor for yarns going into the natural warps or beam dyed warps.
Many spinners choose to produce yarns that can be used for all applications, but the result may be a compromise of the fabric appearance.
1.     The filling yarn must be uniform in appearance from the inside of the package to the outside. There should be no rotor loading that changes the yarn hairiness from a clean to loaded condition. Filling variations are very obvious when used across a dyed warp and are considered as defects.
2.     The warp yarn is not sensitive to slight yarn variations. In many instances, a “ring like” uneven appearance is desired.
3.     Rotors for coarse and medium count yarns have been developed with a wide-angle groove to minimize rotor loading and subsequent yarn variations. The D lll rotor is frequently used for spinning denim yarn. For cotton that is very abrasive, boron treated steel with a diamond /nickel coating is recommended.
4.     For rope dyeing warp yarns the following rotors are suggested:
a.     Ne 5, 6/1 to 12/1 - rotor 48 D lll D at 50,000 to 65,000 rpm.
b.     Ne 5.6/1 to 12/1 - rotor 40 D lll BD at 60,000 to 80,000 rpm.
c.      Ne 6/1 to 12/1 – rotor 35 D lll BD at 75,000 to 90,000 rpm.

5.     In some cases the D lll rotor is used for beam dyed warps and filling to simplify the logistics of the spinning plant.
6.     Where a strong, lean yarn with low hairiness is needed for filling or beam dyeing, the 40 mm S D rotor is suggested.
7.     Denim yarns are normally spun with grooved ceramic nozzles, depending upon the required yarn characteristics. The spiral nozzle is not recommended because the coarse yarns are too lively and have excessive torque. The K3KK, K4KK, K8KK and K4KD are normally used. When the K4KD nozzle is used, the yarns go into rope dyed warps.
8.     Lively, coarse denim yarns tend to kink and snarl at the next process. To overcome this tendency, the soft twist tube can be used. However it should be noted that this tube tends to slightly increase the yarn bulk and hairiness.
9.     The opening roller wires used for denim yarns normally are standard for cotton i.e. OB 20, OB 20 – DN or OU 25 D. These wires produce a uniform yarn with good evenness.
10.             “Ring Like” denim yarn is a relatively uneven yarn created by irregular fibre opening. This effect can be produced by using a special opening roller that can be made available through the technical department.

Drapery and upholstery yarns
Drapery and upholstery yarns are frequently spun from synthetic fibres, nylon, polyester, acrylic and viscose in 100% form or as blends with a variety of fibres to obtain a special texture or optical effect:
Fibres tend to over 1.5″ long and of relatively coarse denier. The hardened steel 56 mm rotors with 57- degree grooves are frequently used, - (65 mm for special applications). For 1.5″ fibres the 40 SB rotor is suitable.
1.     Yarn counts are in the range Ne 3/1 to 6/1.
2.     Care has to be given to controlling the feeding of the sliver. If the sliver is too cohesive and will not open easily, the sliver feed is irregular and spinning is unstable. Attention has to be given to prevent the sliver slipping between the feed roller and the feed plate. The fluting of the feed roller should securely grip the sliver.
3.     The opening roller should have a wear resistant coating or be of the wear resistant pinned ring type.
4.     The nozzle has to be selected depending upon the type of fibres being spun. In some cases the K4K nozzle is used and in others instances, for 100% polyester, the smooth flat steel nozzle SGF is used.
5.     Many times the spinning components for these products have to be selected by the business unit technical department.

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Different types of thread packages

       Sewing threads are put up on different types of thread packages called spools, cops or tubes, cones, king tubes or vicones, containers, cocoons, and prewound bobbins to suit different types of threads, machines, and sewing needs. Sewing machines require specific types of thread packages in order for the thread to be presented correctly to the machine. Thread packages may be color coded by size and type of thread to assist operators in correct thread section. Thread is sold by length instead of weight. The following figure shows several types of thread packages –

Thread packages

Spools – Spools contain relatively short yardage and have thread wound in a parallel position. Spools have a flange either end that interferes with off winding on industrial machines. Spools are designed for home sewing use.
Cops – Cops are used primarily on lockstitch machines where a variety of colors are used and productions runs in any one color are short. Thread is cross-wound on cops or small tubes to increase in off winding.
Cones – Cones are symmetric, tapered forms made of paper or plastic that hold over 5,000 meters of cross-wound thread. Cones provide good off-winding performance for high-speed machines. Cones are the most economical packages for sewing threads in situations when thread consumption is high and production runs are long with limited shade changes.
Vicones or king tubes – Vicones or king tubes may be parallel tubes or low-angle cones with a flange at the bottom, which is designed to contain spillage of smooth or continuous filament threads during of winding.
Containers – Containers are designed to handle lively monofilament threads that may be difficult to control with traditional packages. Very large spools of thread may have lubricant applied as the thread is off-wound.
Cocoons – Cocoons are centerless thread packages designed for insertion in shuttleless of multi-needle quilting machines and some types of embroidery machine.
Prewound bobbins – These are precision-wound packages designed to replace metal bobbins in lockstitch machines. Generally, more thread is available and the length is more consistent on prewound bobbins than on operator wound bobbins. Downtime is minimized by eliminating time for winding bobbins. Off winding is also improved because of precision winding. Prewound bobbins are available in different thread types and sizes for different models of machines.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

What is fancy yarn? Properties and uses of fancy yarns

Definition of fancy yarn | Properties and uses 

         “Fancy yarns” are those in which some deliberate decorative discontinuity or interruption is introduced, of either color or form, or of both color and form. This discontinuity is incorporated with the intention of producing an enhanced aesthetic effect. In discussing fancy effect in fabric, we must also include the metallic yarn and yarns that have a metallic appearance, and therefore in the discussion of fancy yarn structure we have included a short section about these yarns, although by strict terms of the definition, metallic may not be “fancy” since they may not demonstrate any visible discontinuity of either color or form.

Fancy yarns
Some Properties of Fancy Yarns
*Fancy yarns usually have a base or core yarn which is a conventional plain yarn, this yarn is combined with the effect yarn.
*The effect yarn can be held in place with a binding yarn.
*Fancy yarn can be made from staple or filament fibres.
*They are intentionally produced to have a distorted or irregular construction.
*There are many types of fancy, novelty and decorative yarns. They can be produced in many ways.
    ¬Different colored fibre can be blended together then spun as one yarn.
    ¬Color can be applied by printing or dyeing pattern onto yarn.
    ¬Sports of colored fibre can be twisted in with base yarn.
    ¬Two or more threads of different, softness, thickness, weight, color or fibre               content can be twisted together.
    ¬Raised textured can be introduced by controlling the amount and direction of twist.
*Fancy yarns can be natural or man-made or a combination of both.

Uses of Fancy Yarns

*Fancy yarns are used in weaving of suiting, shirting, dress material, upholstery, furnishing fabric & woolen tweeds.
*They are also used in the knitting industry.
*These are used for beauty & appeal enhancement.
*By using fancy yarns the end product gets a boost in its visual appeal, which in turn improves its sales realization.
*These yarns can be used in power looms, hand looms, flat knitting and all type of circular knitting machine.
*These fancy yarns are synthesized on state of art hollowed fancy machines.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Different structures and formations of fancy yarn

Marl Yarn | Spiral or Corkscrew Yarn | Gimp Yarn | Diamond Yarn | Eccentric Yarn | Boucle Yarn | Loop Yarn | Snarl Yarn | Mock chenille Yarn | Knop Yarn

Structures and formations of fancy yarns
Fancy yarns fall in to different categories, depending upon the basic morphology of yarns. They are shortly described below;
1. Marl Yarn: The simplest of fancy effects, a marl yarn is one in which two yarns of the same count and twist, but of different colors, are folded together to form a balanced yarn. They are, therefore, essentially plain folded yarns with the additional characteristics that the yarns folded together are of a different color or texture. As such, they barely count as “fancy yarns” at all, except in that they result in a suitable, but noticeable, modification to the appearance of finished fabric.

Marl yarn
2. Spiral or Corkscrew Yarn: A spiral or corkscrew yarn is a plied yarn that displays a characteristic smooth spiraling of one component around other. Following figure shows the basic structure, which is straightforward, and except in the differing lengths of the two yarns involved, very similar to the structure of marl yarn. Indeed, just like marl yarn shown also in the following Figure, it can be produced relatively simply on a double frame or under the ring spinning system. It is more textural in appearance than marl, and the finer counts may also appear in some of the laces used in lingerie.

Spiral yarn
3. Gimp Yarn: A gimp is a compound yarn consisting of a twisted core with an effect yarn wrapped around it so as to produce wavy projections on its surface. This structure is shown in following figure. Since a binder is needed to ensure the stability of the structure, the yarn is produced in two stages. Two yarns of widely differing count are plied together, thick around him, and the reverse bond. Reverse binding removes most of the twist inserted during the first process. It is this removal of twist that creates the wavy profiles, since it makes the effect yarns longer than the actual length of the completed yarn.

Gimp yarn
4. Diamond Yarn: A diamond yarn is made by folding a thick single yarn or roving with a fine yarn or filament of contrasting color using S-twist, and cabling it with a similar fine yarn using Z-twist. Multi-fold or `cable` yarns may be produced by extending and varying this technique, to produce a wide range of effects. Clearly, a true diamond yarn would show some compression effect which in the interests of clarity has been omitted from the following figure.

Diamond yarn
5. Eccentric Yarn: An eccentric yarn is an undulating gimp yarn, often produced by binding an irregular yarn, for example a strip, slub or knop yarn, in the direction opposite to the initial stage, creating graduated half-circular loops also along the compound yarn.

6. Boucle Yarn: The following figure shows the basic structure underlying a boucle yarn. This is a compound yarn comprising a twisted core with an effect yarn (or roving) combined with it so as to produce wavy projections on its surface. To simplify the diagram, the core has been shown as single bar, rather than as two yarns being intertwined with the effect yarn, as would be the case in reality. 

Boucle yarn
      Boucle yarns belong to the gimp yarns and loop yarns. The effect is achieved by the differential delivery of the effect component wraps around the core yarns either tightly or loosely according to the amount of excess delivery and the level of the doubling twist inserted. These wraps are bound by the effect yarn. The effect is similar to a gimp. 
7. Loop Yarn: A loop yarn consists of a core with an effect yarn wraooed around it and overfed so as to produce almost circular projection on its surface. The following figure shows the structure of a loop yarn, in this case somewhat simplified by showing the core as two yarns, is twisted, and partially entraps the effect.

Loop yarn
8. Snarl Yarn: Like the loop yarn, the snarl yarn is based around a twisted core, although, again for the sake of simplicity, the core has been shown in following figure as two parallel bars. A snarl yarn is one which displays 'snarls' or 'twist' projecting from the core. It is made by similar method to the loop yarn, but uses as the effect a lively, high twist yarn and somewhat greater degree of overfeed.

Snarl yarn
9. Mock chenille Yarn: A mock chenille dose not at all resemble a true chenille yarn in its appearance as a yarn, but when it is woven into a fabric it will give an effect very similar to that of a chenille. It will, however, seem much harsher in handle because it does not involve cutting the loop of the effect yarns and so it lacks the 'velvety' fell.

Mock chenille Yarn

10. Knop Yarn: A knop yarn is one that contains prominent bunches of one or more of its component threads, arranged at regular or irregular intervals along its length, as shown in very simplified form in the following yarn.

Knop Yarn
      It is usually made by using an apparatus that has two pairs of rollers, each capable of being operated independently. This makes it possible to deliver the foundation threads intermittently, while the knopping threads that create the effect are delivered continuously.
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Md. Arafat Islam
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