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Friday, March 6, 2015

What is Gauze fabric | Characteristics and End Usages of Gauze fabric

Definition of Leno or Gauze fabric

Leno or gauze is a weave in which the wrap yarns do not lie parallel to each other. Warp yarns work in groups, usually pairs of two; one yarn of each pair is crossed over the other before the filling yarn is inserted. When looking at a leno fabric, one might think that the yarns were twisted fully around each other, but this is not true. Careful examination shows that they are crossed and that one yarn of the pair is always above the other.

Gauze fabric
Gauze Fabric

Characteristics or features of Leno or Gauze Fabric

  • The gauze weave construction produces a fabric very light in weight and with an open mesh effect.
  • Leno weaves also produces curtain materials, some shirting and dress goods.
  • This weave produces such light-weight fabrics have a strength that could not be provided by plain weave.
  • The gauze weave is sometimes referred to as the leno weave because it is made on a leno loom.
  • On the leno loom, the action of one warp yarn is similar to the action the warp in the plain weave.
  • The doup attachment, a hairpin-like device at the heddle, alternately pulls the second warp yarn up or down to the right or left with each pick passage. This causes the pair of warps to be twisted, in effect, around each weft yarn.
  • The leno is sometimes used in combination with the plain weave to produce a stripe or figure on a plain back ground.
  • The fabric weight varies depending upon the thickness of the yarns, which could be of spun, filament or combinations of these yarns.

End usages of Gauze fabric

  • Fabrics made by leno weave include marquisette (It is a sheer, light weight, leno weave fabric, usually made of filament yarns), mosquito netting, agritextiles to shade delicate plants, and some bags for laundry, fruit and vegetables.
Net fabric
Net Fabric
  • Polyester marquisettes are widely used for sheer curtains.  
  • Casement draperies (Casement cloth is a general term for any open-weave fabric used for drapery or curtain fabrics. It is usually sheer.) are frequently made with leno-weave and novelty yarns.
  • Thermal blankets are sometimes made of leno weaves.
  • All these fabrics are characterized by sheerness or open spaces between the yarns. The crossed-yarn arrangement gives greater firmness and strength than plain-weave fabrics for a similar low count and minimizes yarn slippage.

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

Hair lines stripe, Crowsfoot, Dog’s tooth, Shepherd’s check, Birdseye and Stepped twill pattern or weave

Hair lines or Pin stripe

The effect of arranging the warp and weft a 2:2 order of coloring in the 2/2*2 matt-weave cloth is shown in the following figure; similarly the shades indicate the dark yarns. The weave and color arrangement produce the pattern, which consists of thick or coarse horizontal lines alternately dark and light like as previous end coloring pattern.
In the following right side figure the weave is same as in the left one, but the warp and weft color arrangement has been changed: the result in vertical lines. Similarly the pattern can be changed by changing the starting of the weave with same color arrangement of both warp and weft yarn.

Haie line weave

Crowsfoot pattern

The effect of arranging the warp and weft 2:2 order of coloring in the 1/1 plain-weave cloth is shown in the following left figure; similarly the shades indicate the dark yarns. The weave and color arrangement produce the pattern, which is the well-known crowsfoot design.
A similar but larger crowsfoot pattern results from using a 4:4 coloring with a 2/2*2 matt-weaves represent in the following right side figure.

Crows foot pattern

Dog’s tooth or Hound’s tooth pattern

The most popular weave for color and weave effects is 2/2 twill. With a 4:4 coloring, arranged as in the following figure, it gives a distinctive and decorative pattern known as dog’s tooth when a relatively fine construction gives a small, and as hound’s tooth when a coarser construction gives a larger pattern.

Dog’s tooth or Hound’s tooth pattern

Shepherd’s check pattern

A 6:6 order of coloring with a 2/2 twill weave gives an effect similar to, but bolder than, dog’s tooth.

Shepherd’s check pattern

Birdseye effect

A useful type of color and weave effect is known as ‘a fabric having a pattern of very small and uniform spots, the result of a combination of weave and color’. The development of the pattern and of another pattern of the same type, but having larger spots, is given in the following figures. Both these patterns use simple fancy weave. Other fancy weaves used with suitable orders of coloring provide a considerable range of patterns, some of which are distinctive enough to be useful.

Birdseye effect

Stepped twill pattern

A 1:1 order of coloring with a 2/2 twill weave (for finer effect) or 1:2 order of coloring with a twill weave (for finer effect) or 2:1 order of coloring with a twill 3/3 weave (for coarser effect) gives a useful effect known as stepped twill. Its development is shown in the following figures.

Stepped twill pattern

Friday, January 2, 2015

Diamond Weave

This is a derivative of twill weave. Diamond design is developed on the basis of pointed draft principle. It is build-up by the combination of vertical and horizontal zig-zag weave. The repeat size of this design is also calculated from the regular or base twill design. In this case the number of both warp and weft yarns in this weave are double of the number of warp and weft yarn of base twill respectively. For example, if the repeat size of basic regular twill is 4 X 4, than the repeat size of this design is 8 X 8. It is a reversible design. So it may be divided into two equal parts in both vertical and horizontal axis. Pointed or V-drafting system is used to produce this design.

Diamond Weave Design

Construction Principle of Diamond Design

There are several systems to build up this design. At first select the repeat size according to the basic twill. Then repeat size is divided into four quadrants. Now the basic twill is put in every quadrant by the change of direction of twill line in this way that the opposite twill line of every twill should be parallel and they produce an angle at the changing point. Both sides of some diamond designs are not equal although they are developed on the same basic twill. It depends on the construction principle.

Diamond Weave
Uses
      -         It is used to design Towel fabric structure.
      -         Used in the design of bed cover and pillow cover.
      -         Also used in table cloth design.

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Basket Weave

Hopsack/Basket/Matt Weave

     Basket weave is also known as Hopsack and Matt Weave. The Hopsack weave, a variation of the plain weave, uses two or more warp and/or two or more weft yarns side by side as one yarn. The resultant cloth is fairly loose in weave. The hopsack weave is obtained by doubling or otherwise multiplying the interlacing points of the plain weave in both the warp and weft direction. These weaves are made with two or more weft yarns placed in the same shed. The interlacing pattern is similar to the plain weave, but two or more yarns follow the same parallel path. Matt designed fabrics are more flexible and wrinkle resistant because there are fewer interlacing per square inch. The fabrics look flatter than comparable regular plain weave fabrics. However, long floats snag easily. The matt designed cloth has a greater resistance to tearing. Matt design tends to give smooth surface fabrics. In the repeat size of the matt weave the numbers of warp and weft yarns are equal. There are four types of basket or matt design such as regular, irregular, stitch and fancy matt.

Basket-weave
Basket-weaved-fabric

Regular Matt

     Most regular matt are woven with the same number of ends and picks and the same yarn count. Equal warp floats exchange with equal weft floats. So the regular matt design is produced by the combination of regular warp and weft rib design. The regular matt design is represented by the formula number ‘A/A X A’, where ‘A’ indicates the warp and weft floats.
      Denting plays an important part in achieving a correct matt design. Ends that work alike should be separated by the reed as the ends tend to roll or twist round each other when weaving. The following figures show close up view of some regular matt or basket design with drafting and lifting plan.

Regular Matt
 
Basket weave
Regular Matt

Irregular Matt

     Warp and weft floats are different in one repeat of irregular matt design. So the design is produced by the combination of irregular warp and weft rib weave. The irregular matt design is represented by the formula number ‘A/B(A+B)’, where, ‘A’ indicates the warp floats and ‘B’ indicates the weft floats. The following figure show close up view and interlacing diagram of some irregular matt weaves with drafting and lifting plan.

Irregular Matt design
Basket weave
Irregular Matt

Stitch Matt

     Matt or basket structures are liable to slippage, especially in coarser weaves or when woven with worsted yarns. To produce a firm cloth with lower setting, the centre ends in each square can be stitched. In case of warp float area the central warp yarn goes down and of weft float area the central warp comes up. The following figure shows the weave plan of some stitch matt fabric with drafting and lifting plan.

Stitch basket weave

Fancy Matt

     Fancy matt is one kind of stitch matt. In case of stitch matt, the stitch or stitching thread is does not affect the prominence of actual regular matt effect. The stitching thread is hidden by the neighboring threads, so it does not visible on the fabric surface. But in the fancy matt the stitching threads are not hidden, they are visible. The stitching system affects the design of regular matt weave. They produce decorative appearance on the fabric surface. It can be compared with ‘katha’ and ‘nokshi-katha’.

Fancy basket design

Sunday, September 7, 2014

What are stitched double cloths? Classification of stitched double cloths

Definition

          Double cloths are fabrics in which there are at least two series of warp and weft threads each of which is engaged primarily in producing its own layer of cloth, thus forming a separate face cloth and a separate back cloth. The two layers may be only loosely connected together in which case each may be readily identified as a different entity or they may be so intricately stitched or tied together that they appear to form a complex single structure.
          The purpose of the construction may be entirely utilitarian, such as the improvement of the thermal insulation value of a fabric in which a fine, smart face appearance is necessary; or it may be aesthetic in intension for which purpose the existence of two series of threads in each direction improves the capacity for producing intricate effects dependent upon either color, or structural changes.

Classification of double cloths

          Most of the double cloths can be classified under well defined headings and the following list gives the principal structural types with the simple schematic diagrams in the figure illustrating the basic principle of each construction.
a.     Self-stitched double cloths
       These fabrics contain only the two series of threads in both directions and the stitching of the face cloth layer to the back layer is accomplished by occasionally dropping a face end under a back pick or by lifting a back end over a face pick or by utilizing both of the above systems in different portions of the cloth. This type of structure and the three different methods of stitching are illustrated at the following figure –

This type of structure and the three different methods of stitching are illustrated at the figure.

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Some important terms of fabric structure and design

Some important terms of fabric structure and design are discussed below -

The weave shows the interlacing pattern of warp and weft. Each weave consists of the following parts or fields.

Fabric-structure

Contact fields

          These are the contact points between warp and weft crossing at right angle. The number of contact fields always equals the product of the number of warp and weft threads. Contact field = RNwa X RNwe = 3 X 3 = 9

Interlacing field

          These are the points where a yarn of one system of threads changes its position in relation to the other system. A distinction is made between single and double interlacing fields.

Single interlacing field

          The yarn bends from the top of the fabric to the bottom and covers two or more yarns.

Interlacing Field

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Honeycomb weave

All about honeycomb weave
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The term is applied to weaves which resemble honey comb cells. The cellular formations appear square in the cloth. They are formed by some ends and picks interlacing tighter than others and therefore developing a higher tension. Usually single cloths are made by progressively lengthening and shortening both warp and weft floats to form ridges and hollows on a square pattern, to give a cellular appearance.

The term is applied to weaves which resemble honey comb cells. The cellular formations appear square in the cloth.
There are two types of honey comb weaves, such as – Ordinary honeycomb and Brighton honeycomb
Ordinary honeycomb
Main features:
The main features of ordinary honeycomb are as follows –
·        Surface of produced fabric is rough.
·        Similar appearance or effect formed in both sides of the fabric.
·        In repeat size, ends and picks are equal or unequal.
·        Repeat size is multiple of two.
·        Smallest repeat size is 6 X 4.
·        One cell in each repeat.
·        V – draft or pointed draft is found.
·        Simple construction.
Construction principle:
The stages of constructing an ordinary honeycomb weave are as follows –
·        Construct a 1/a Z twill starting in the bottom left-hand corner, then a similar one running in the opposite direction and starting one square down from the top left-hand corner, so that there will be a clean intersection of the twill lines, as at first stage;
·        In one of the two diamonds produced, leave a row of stitching points and then lift the remainder of the diamond solid. This is the final weave.
The following figures show the weave plan with drafting and lifting plan of different equal and unequal repeat sizes of ordinary honey comb weaves –
This weaves is particularly suitable for hand towels, glass cloths, dispensed roller towels and bath mats
End uses:
This weaves is particularly suitable for hand towels, glass cloths, dispensed roller towels and bath mats, where moisture absorption properties are particularly desired, but in similar coarse cotton qualities it is also used for quilts and soft furnishings, and in finer qualities for shirts and brocades. In conjunction with the newer textured yarns, it is produced in very coarse qualities for cellular blankets.
Brighton honeycomb:
Main features:
Brighton honeycomb is a complex structure. The main features of Brighton honeycomb are as follows –
·        More honeycomb cells of varying size are produced in this weave.
·        The fabric surface is also rough as ordinary honeycomb.
·        When making the weave, the number of threads per repeat should always be a multiple of (i.e. 12 ends X 12 picks), whilst the longest float should always be one less than half the number of threads in the repeat (i.e. 12/2 – 1 = 5).
·        Both sides of the fabric look the same like as ordinary honeycomb.
·        Straight drafting system is used to produce this brighton honeycomb weave.
Construction principle:
The construction more complicated than the ordinary honeycomb, is illustrated by figures below, with the following stages –
·        Construct a 1/a Z twill, starting in the bottom left-hand corner, and then construct a 1/a S twill, starting with the first warp lifts in the squares to the right and below the square in the top left-hand corner, and indicate the points on the double row of binding which are immediately adjacent to those of intersection that will allow extensive floats in the weft direction, as illustrated in the first stage;
·        Using the points indicated in first stage as the extreme lift of the longest float, lift the remaining adjacent ends, as in second stage;
·        Each of these warp floats now form the centre float of a diamond which can be completed. This is the final weave.
The draft of the brighton honeycomb is straight, this producing a lifting plan which is identical with the design; therefore, there is no saving of heald-shafts as is the case with the pointed or V-draft of the ordinary honey comb.
Brighton honey comb is used in similar qualities for more decorative end uses such as quilts and brocades and in some cases, hand towels and glass cloths.
End uses:
Although the weave is not as popular as the ordinary honeycomb, it is used in similar qualities for more decorative end uses such as quilts and brocades and in some cases, hand towels and glass cloths. It is also suitable for crockery towels.
Reference:
Understanding textiles for a merchandiser by Engr. Shah Alimuzzaman Belal.

Monday, March 31, 2014

Huckaback and mock leno weaves

Notes on huckaback and mockleno design 
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Huckaback weaves
Introduction:
The huckaback weaves are basically toweling fabrics. They are generally associated with honey comb fabrics and hence known as honeycomb effects. They are constructed by alternately combining a floating with a plain weave. Interestingly, a number of weaves are derived from these weaves. Huck a back weaves are suitable for producing thick and heavy textures. One of the well known heavier varieties of this class is the “Grecians”. The design of huckaback weaves permits stripe and check effects to be brought out in the fabrics.
The huckaback weaves are basically toweling fabrics. They are generally associated with honey comb fabrics and hence known as honeycomb effects.

Monday, February 24, 2014

Systems or classification of drafting

Briefly discussion about classification of drafting

Systems or classification of drafting:
      1.    Straight draft:  Straight draft is the most common and can be used with any number of shafts. Each successive thread is drawn on successive shafts, the first thread on the first shaft, the second thread on the second shaft, and so on. The last thread of the warp repeat is drawn on the last shaft. Thus the number of shafts equals the warp repeat and the repeat of draft equals the warp repeat.
 Straight draft is the most common and can be used with any number of shafts.The number of shafts equals the warp repeat and the repeat of draft equals the warp repeat.

Monday, October 7, 2013

Fabric structure and design

Some beautiful fabric structure and design

Basket design:

Diamond design:
Diamond design
Plain design:
Plain design
Satin design:
Satin design
Twill design:
Twill design